Notes on vötgil. HOME

This is an attempt to describe Jack Eisenmann's vötgil in a more formal manner

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Introduction: I like the general design of vötgil, but it is not described
in nearly enough detail. Many basic structures are left out. So I am writing
a more extensive and detailed description.

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Contents

0.0 Preface
1.0 Phonology
1.1 Phonotactics
1.2 Writing System
2.0 Summary of Grammar
2.1 Basic Grammar
2.2 Basic conversation phrases
2.3 Noun Phrases
2.4 Nouns from other words
2.5 Basic Verb Phrases
2.6 Verb Tense and Voice
2.7 Descriptor Usage
2.8 Subclauses or Situation nouns
2.9 Colloquial versus formal v0tgil
2.10 Numbers in v0tgil
3.0 Intro to the vocabulary
3.1 Roots and their antonyms
3.2 Visual Vocabulary
3.3 Set Compound Nouns
3.4 Proper Nouns
3.5 Third Person Pronouns
3.6 Etymology
4.0 More Useful Phrases
4.1 Comparison to Breadspeak
4.2 How to Type in Vötgil 
4.3 Some Statistics of Vötgil 
5.0 Bibliography
5.1 Transcript of Videos

0.0 Preface

V0tgil is a language created by Jack Eisenmann in 2013, and described by him
in a set of videos and on his website.

V0tgil is an analytic language with nominative-accusative alignment,
SVO word order, and a combination of head-final and head-initial syntax.
It has 22 consonants and 9 monophthong vowels, with several diphthongs.
Its phonology distinguishes voice in both fricatives and stops, and its
phonotactics are more complex than most world languages, but less complex 
than many european languages.

These are my notes. Throughout you may see citations, in the form ᴸ³ˢ¹⁴⁻¹⁸,
which give the numbers of particular sentences in my transcripts of 
Eisenmann's videos, and link to the lesson in question.

1.0 Phonology

Vowels:
      front   central    back
high  y /i/              w /u/
          i /ɪ/          o /o/
mid            r /ɚ/
      e /ɛ/          u /ʌ/
open  a /æ/              0/ö /ɑ/
Diphthongs/glides:
  uy /ʌj/   aw /æw/  er /ɛɹ/  or /oɹ/
  ey /ɛj/   yw /ju/  yr /iɹ/  0r/ör /ɑɹ/
  oy /oj/   wy /wi/  wr /uɹ/
Consonants:
  labial       coronal      dorsal
  m /m/         n /n/       q /ŋ/
  p /p/         t /t/       k /k/
  b /b/         d /d/       g /g/
  f /f/  x  /θ/ s /s/ c /ʃ/ h /h/
  v /v/ 9/ð /ð/ z /z/ j /ʒ/
  w /w/         r /ɹ/ y /j/
                l /l/

This phonology is based on Eisenmann's dialect of American English. ᴸ¹
Personally, I speak Canadian English so, I would pronounce a /a/ and 0 /ɒ/.


1.1 Phonotactics

v0tgil has only three allowed syllable structures, CVC, CCV, and CVV.ᴸ²ˢ²⁻³ 
There are restrictions beyond this as well, inferred from the vocabulary:
- In practice there aren't any CVV words.
- r can only end a CVC word if the vowel is one of e,y,w,o,0.
- y and w can only end CVC words in the following dipthongs:
  ey, uy, oy, aw.
- a, u, and i are forbidden from ending words.
- initial consonant clusters are limited to: 
  Bl Br Fl Fr Gl Gr Kl Kr My Pl Pr Sk Sl Sm Sp St Sw Tc Dj Xr
- No vötgil words end in h, much as in english. It is therefore posited that 
  final h may be pronounced as /x/ or /χ/, rather than /h/.
- No vötgil words begin with q. 

1.2 Writing System

V0tgil is usually seen written in the Latin alphabet, with two extra letters,
which in this document are written as 0 and 9, but are more correctly
written as ö and ð. 

V0tgil also has a script for minecraft, using a stack of 3 wool blocks for each
letter. I won't attempt to describe it here, see Eisenmann's website for
details.

V0tgil can be written with spaces between words, with no space and a capitalized 
first letter on each morpheme, or even in pure lowercase with no spaces, 
(this is surprisingly easy to read, because of v0tgil's phonotactics).
However, as discussed below, subclauses or 
situation nouns ought to be separated from their main clauses with quotes. ᴸ⁵ˢ³

V0tgil's phonology is incompatible with most other world alphabets,
with the notable exceptions of Runic and Devanagari. A summary of those 
putative mappings is shown below:
y ई ᛄ  w ऊ ᚹ
i इ ᛁ  o ओ ᚩ
e ए ᛖ  u अ ᚢ
a ऐ ᚫ  0 आ ᛟ
m म ᛗ         n न ᚾ         q ङ ᛝ
p प ᛈ         t ट ᛏ         k क ᚳ
b ब ᛒ         d ड ᛞ         g ग ᚷ
f फ ᚠ  x थ ᚦ  s स ᛋ  c श ᛊ  h ह ᚻ
v व ᚡ  9 ध ᚧ  z ष ᛉ  j ज ᛃ
w ऊ ᚹ  l ल ᛚ  r ऋ ᚱ  y ई ᛄ

2.0 Grammar of v0tgil, formal summary

basic words : N | V | D | P
Sentence   : NP VP NP | NP VP
Subclause  : " S " 
NounPhrase : NP P NP | DP NP | N NP | SC | wim SC | wis SC | N
DescPhrase : D DP | D
VerbPhrase : VP P NP | V VP | DP VP | V
Basic words are Nouns, Verbs, Descriptors and Prepositions ᴸ³ˢ¹
Words can be converted in the following ways:
N sis > N  eg. ficsis  :: fishes ᴸ⁴ˢ³
N zis > N  eg. d0gzis  :: dogs
D rer > N  eg. nolrer  :: loner ᴸ⁴ˢ²³
V rer > N  eg. vitrer  :: visitor ᴸ⁴ˢ²¹
V rey > N  eg. casrey  :: question ᴸ⁴ˢ²⁷
V niq > N  eg. casniq  :: interview ᴸ⁴ˢ¹⁶
D nis > N  eg. difnis  :: difference ᴸ⁴ˢ²⁹
V tid > D  eg. yottid  :: eaten ᴸ⁴ˢ⁹
V did > D  eg. fiddid  :: found
Noun phrases can be formed in the following ways:
N NP    eg. dey-mid :: middle of the day, noon ᴸ³ˢ²⁴
DP NP   eg. fas-gem :: fast-game, race ᴸ³ˢ¹⁴⁻¹⁸
NP P NP eg. kuc-rer vun 9yt nor-lan :: ruler of the north-land ᴸ³ˢ¹⁹⁻²³
SC	eg. "sum-fic wuz-yot 9yt-bre" :: that a fish ate the bread ᴸ⁵ˢ³
wim SC  eg. wim "sum-fic wuz-yot 9yt-bre" :: the bread that a fish ate ᴸ⁵ˢ²³
wis SC  eg. wis "9yt-fic wuz-yot 9yt-bre" :: the fish that ate the bread
Verb Phrases can be formed in the following ways:
V VP	eg. lrn-gof	:: learn-go, explore ᴸ³ˢ²⁴
VP P NP eg. gof-xrw-jer :: go through air, fly  ᴸ³ˢ²²
DP VP	eg. cup-mwv	:: up-move, raise ᴸ³ˢ¹⁴⁻¹⁸
Descriptor Phrases can be formed in the following way:
D DP    eg. vergwd  :: very good ᴸ³ˢ¹⁴⁻¹⁸
Sentences are composed normally in the following ways:
NP VP	  eg. nuy wuz-kry :: I wept ᴸ³ˢ⁸
NP VP NP  eg. nuy yot fic :: I eat fish

2.1 Basic Grammar

Pronouns:
   singular       plural
1  nuy    "I"     nuyzis    "we"
2  ywn    "you"   ywnzis    "you"
3f 9atfim "she"   9atfimzis
3m 9atman "he"    9atmanzis
3n 9atprs "they"  9atprssis "they"
3i 9atb0j "it"    9atb0jzis  see section on third person pronouns
R  sef    "self"  sefsis    "selves"

Basic Noun 'inflections':
           singular           plural
general    brd     "bird"     brdzis      "birds"  ᴸ⁴ˢ³
indefinite sum brd "a bird"   sum brdzis  "some birds"
definite   9yt brd "the bird" 9yt brdzis  "the birds"
Articles can be omitted if it's not important.
Plurals are formed in -sis if the word ends in a unvoiced consonant, -zis otherwise.

Basic Verb 'inflections':
present  yot      "eat" "are eating"
progress kin yot  "eating" "continue to eat"
past     wuz yot  "ate" ᴸ⁶ˢ⁶
future   wil yot  "will eat"

Basic sentence structure is Subject, verb, object: ᴸ³ˢ⁸
nuy wuz yot sum brdzis "I ate some birds" 

The object may be omitted, but not the subject:
nuy wuz yot "I ate."

2.2 Basic Conversation Phrases

hey     "hello"   v0they  "goodbye"
nuy 9eq "thanks"  nuy gul viz "I'm sorry"
nuy gyt "welcome" nuy v0tdan  "I am confused"
baxrwm viz witplw  "where is the bathroom?"
ywn key duz viz?    "are you okay?"
tcw    "yes"      n0t   "no"
Nuy kan sey cin v0tgil         "I can speak v0tgil"
Nuy v0tkan sey cin v0tgil  "I can't speak v0tgil"
Ywn duz kan sey cin v0tgil? "Can you speak v0tgil?" 
Nuy sey cin gil.            "I speak English"

2.3 Noun Phrases

A descriptor comes before the word it describes. ᴸ³ˢ¹⁷
   pwr w0t "pure water"

Multiple descriptors can stack up.
    9yt pwr w0t "the pure water"
    9is pwr w0t "this pure water"

Multiple nouns in a row form a possessive or genitive relationship, or the first
may act to describe the second. ᴸ³ˢ²⁴
These senses can be disambiguated if necessary, by using the prepositions vun, lyk. 
    nuy w0t "my water"
    w0t brd "water-bird"
    man brd "a male bird"

A preposition attaches the phrase before it to the phrase after it. ᴸ³ˢ²²
    sum brd cin w0t "a bird in the water"

Prepositions bind less tightly than adjectives and possessive nouns, but they 
are normally only right-associative. (This follows logically from the fact
prepositions come between the words they modify.) So if I say:
    sum brd lwf w0t-vok cin lok "a bird to the left of the boat in the lake"
It means the bird is not necessarily in the lake.

Multiple prepositions can be stacked, but in particular, the preposition "van" 
can fix this problem.
    sum brd lwf w0t-vok van-cin lok "a bird to the left of the boat, and in the lake"

A preposition can also attach to a verb as seen in the section on verb phrases,
or to a subclause also called a "situation noun".
The specific meanings of prepositions are detailed in the vocabulary.

2.4 Nouns Based on inflecting other words

A verb can be turned into a noun in several ways. The most basic way is the 
suffix -niq. Such a word simply makes a noun of the action of the verb, with 
no particular subject or object: ᴸ⁴ˢ¹⁶
    yotniq "the action of eating" or "ingestion"

If, instead, a word is needed to describe the subject of the verb, the -rer
suffix is used: ᴸ⁴ˢ²¹
    yotrer "an eater"

Either of these can be given a subject by prefixing it as a possessive.
    fwc yotrer "meat eater" or "carnivore"
    fwc yotniq "eating meat" or "carnivory"

By placing a noun after -niq, the verb can act as a descriptor: 
    fwc yotniq brd : flesh eating bird

A word can be made to describe the object of a verb using the -rey suffix: ᴸ⁴ˢ²⁷
    nicrey "that which is interesting" or "an interest" 

A possessive then gives the *subject*
    v0tper nicrey "that which is interesting to a child" "children's media"

The -rer suffix also applies to descriptors, creating a noun which is 
typically described by it: ᴸ⁴ˢ²³
    fycrer "a blinker" or "an LED"

A descriptor or preposition can be formed into a basic noun using the suffix -nis. ᴸ⁴ˢ²⁹
    womnis "warmth"
    nyrnis "closeness"
    pwrnis "purity"

Then the possessive can be used to suggest what it is that is described.
    w0t pwrnis "water purity"

2.5 Basic Verb phrases with descriptors and prepositions

A descriptor, again, always goes before the word it describes.
    brv fet "to fight bravely"

Many descriptors fulfill the purposes auxiliary verbs would in English.
Like with nouns, these grammatical descriptors come before other descriptors.
    wuz brv fet "fought bravely"

A preposition attaches a noun to a verb. Prepositions come directly after the
verb they attach to, even before the direct object of the verb.
    nuy sey cin v0tgil sto "I tell a story in v0tgil"

Only one preposition can really directly attach to the verb, so we again
use "van" as a combining preposition.
    nuy sey cin v0tgil van-cin 9yt k0r sto "I tell a story in v0tgil in the car."

Often this is unnecessary because you can attach the preposition instead to
the subject, or the indirect or direct object anyway.
    nuy cin 9yt k0r sey cin v0tgil sto "I in the car tell a story in v0tgil."

2.6 Verb inflection and word order for Tense and Voice

The following are the main ways to use verbs, without using subclauses.
et's take a basic sentence like: 
    9yt kat yot sum brd "the cat eats a bird"
The verb is "yot", it takes the subject "9yt kat" and object "sum brd".

The past and future are each formed with a descriptor on the verb:
    9yt kat wuz yot sum brd "the cat ate a bird"
    9yt kat wil yot sum brd "the cat will eat a bird"

To form the perfect, the verb can be altered by the descriptor "dun":
    9yt kat dun yot sum brd "the cat has eaten a bird"

For the progressive, use the verb 'kin' to continue, in a verb compound. 
    9yt kat kin yot : the cat is eating
    9yt kat kin yot brdzis : the cat is eating birds

Note that the gerund form with -niq is not used as a present participle.

To form the passive, the verb "yot" becomes a descriptor "yottid",
which applies to the new verb "viz". The old object becomes the subject,
and vice versa. No particle correspondint to english "by" is necessary.
    sum brd yottid viz buy 9yt kat "a bird is eaten by the cat"

To form yes-no questions, add the descriptor "duz" to the main verb:
    9yt kat duz yot sum brd "does the cat eat a bird?"

To form questions that ask for a noun, the descriptor "wit" is used:
note that in all of these questions the SVO word order goes unchanged.
    9yt kat yot wit brd "which bird does the cat eat?"
    9yt kat yot wit xiq "what does the cat eat?"

To form questions that ask for more general information, one way is 
again to use "wit" with vague verbs:
    9yt kat wit dwn     "what does the cat do?"
    kat wit viz         "what is a cat?"

All of these processes can be compounded in various ways:
    wit kat wuz kin yot brd "which cat was eating birds?"
    sum brd duz wil yottid viz buy 9yt kat "will a bird be eaten by the cat?"
    sum brd yottid viz buy kat "a bird is being eaten by a cat"
    sum brd dun yottid viz buy 9yt kat "a bird has been eaten by the cat" 

To say that someone should, or ought to, do something, we use "cwd"
    ywn cwd lrn v0tgil "you should learn votgil"

To tell someone to do something, we can instead use "ply":
    ywn ply mek mod "you, please make metal"

A more abrupt and impolite command is phrased as a statement.
    ywn mek mod : you, make metal!

To say that someone can do something, we use "kan" in verb clusters:
    nuy kan fid s0t "I can find salt"

The word "kan" is a verb, so it can be used directly as the main verb
in passive sentences:
    s0t wuz keldid kan nuy "the salt was gatherable by me"

The word "kwd" means "might" or "could" but is not the past tense of "kan".
It expresses possibility, not ability.
    nuy kwd yot vat 9istem sum pytsis "I might eat some pizza now"

2.7 Descriptors in phrases

A descriptor is always placed before the word it modifies. This implies
that unlike in english, a descriptor cannot be used as the direct 
object of a verb. You can instead place the descriptor before the verb,
especially if it's such a verb as 'viz' (be) or 'bym' (become).
    9yt kat kyt viz : the cat cutely is -- the cat is cute.
    spw gofniq jak bym : space travel is becoming real.

Certain descriptors are usually used to modify other descriptors. 

The descriptor 'ver' is used to indicate a greater degree. 'v0tver' is
used to indicate a lesser, but still positive, degree.
    wom : warm
    verwom : very warm; hot.
    v0tverwom : a little warm

Don't confuse v0tver with verv0t!
    verv0twom : very cold

The descriptors 'mor' and 'v0tmor' are used to indicate a comparative.
    morwom : warmer
    v0tmorwom : less warm

The thing being compared to can be indicated by the preposition '9an'
    9yt wo9 morwom viz 9an v0tnesdey. : the weather is warmer than yesterday 

The descriptor 'mos' and 'v0tmos' are used to indicate superlative.
    9is brd mos kyt viz : this bird is cutest

2.8 Subclauses or Situation Nouns

Grammatically, a subclause creates a new noun out of an entire sentence.
Usually it is sufficient to simply embed the sentence into the main sentence
as if it was a normal noun phrase, but to avoid ambiguity, quotes should
usually be used in formal writing, around the sub-sentence.
    nuy non "9yt kat wuz yot sum brd" : "I know the cat ate a bird"

Two special descriptors are used to extract a noun out of the inner
sentence based on its role: "wis" for the subject and "wim" for the object.
    nuy luv wis "9yt kat wuz yot sum brd" : "I love the cat that ate a bird"
    nuy v0tluv wim "9yt kat wuz yot 9yt brd" : "I hate the bird that the cat ate"

One may wonder what the difference is between using a subclause versus
a verb-derived noun with a possessive. The main difference is that 
the -rey and -rer suffixes imply that the action is typical of the
noun formed.
    wis "nam wuz yot brd" : the animal that ate a bird (perhaps only once)
    brd yotniq nam : a bird eating animal

2.9 Colloquial versus formal v0tgil

Differences between colloquial v0tgil as described in the examples
by Eisenmann, and formal v0tgil as described in the grammar:
In colloquial v0tgil, NP viz DP is used when stating that a descriptor 
describes a noun. E.g. 9yt fic viz v0tgyn. "the fish is red"
Formally, a descriptor must be placed before the word it describes, 
which is this case is the noun's state of "being" so NP DP viz, 
e.g. 9yt fic v0tgyn viz. literally: "the fish redly is".
Another way to express this is that the fish is a "red thing",
e.g. 9yt fic viz v0tgyn xiq. The colloquial phrasing is this, with
"xiq" removed for brevity.

Colloquially P NP NP VP NP is used when a prepositional phrase 
describes the time when an action took place, eg. 'vat 9is tem, nuy wek bil.' 
"now, I work on a building"
Formally, a preposition is always placed between the words it modifies.
hence, 'nuy wek vat 9is tem bil' for "i work now, on a building",
because "vat 9is tem" modifies "wek" not "nuy" or "bil".

Formally a passive participle is a descriptor, so it comes before the word it
describes. Therefore, "nuy wuz-yottid viz", where "wuz-yottid" is a descriptor
for the verb "viz". Colloqually we instead often see "nuy wuz viz yottid".

Rather than the camelcase of the official sources, I've opted for putting different levels of
separation between words depending on their level of semantic relation from closest to farthest:
no space < dash < space < comma < semicolon

2.10 Numbers in v0tgil

The number roots in v0tgil are the descriptors:
    zyr 0 wun 1 twn 2 xry 3 fwr 4 fiv 5 sik 6 sev 7 vot 8 nin 9

v0tgil uses a base 10 number system with no special words for powers of ten,
not even ten. Rather the digits are simply said in order from least to most
significant, so:
    zyrwun 10
    wunsik 61
    fivzyrwun 105
    zyrzyrzyrwun 1000

These numbers are used to describe the quantity of a noun they attach to.
To instead describe the place a noun has in a sequence or ranking, use 'req'
before the numbers.
    reqwun "first"
    reqfiv "fifth"

The descriptor 'fre' can be used to create fractions; it separates the numerator
from the denominator. The numerator can be omitted if it's 1.
    frefiv 1/5 "one fifth"
    xryfrewunwun 3/11 "three elevenths"

3.0 Introduction to the Vocabulary

These are my non-standard names for the letters, mostly based on english:
A hah B byb C cyc D dyd E heh F fef G gyg
H hec I hih J jej K kek L lel M mem N nen
O hoh P pyp Q kwq R r0r S ses T tyt U huh
V vyv W hwh X xex Y hyh Z zyz 0 h0h 9 9y9 
(not to be confused with the numbers nin and zyr)

The main vocabulary list, below, is sorted alphabetically, and only includes the 
monosyllabic v0tgil root words, and their antonyms when modified by v0t. All the roots 
are due to Jack Eisenmann. The antonyms marked with % are also by Eisenmann.

3.1 Roots and their Antonyms

9an (P): than; relative to; with respect to; in comparison with.
9at (D): that; a more distant specific one.
9eq (V): to thank (for doing something)
9is (D): this; a close specific one.
9or (D): other; another; a different one.
9yt (D): the; a specific one.
B0d (N): body. <> v0tb0d : mind, soul
B0j (N): object; item. <> v0tboj : essence, abstraction
B0l (N): ball; sphere. <> v0tb0l : cube
Bag (N): bag; purse.
Bak (P): back to; toward the source or original location. <> v0tbak : forward from
Baw (P): about; concerning. <> v0tbaw : unrelated to
Bax (N): bath; basin; tub; sink.
Bed (N): bed.
Beg (V): to begin (something); start; initiate. <> v0tbeg : to stop, halt % 
Bek (N): bacteria. <> v0tbek : antibiotic
Ben (V): to bend (something); fold. <> v0tben : to straighten, stiffen
Ber (D): barely; hardly at all. 
Bey (D): basic; simple; plain. <> v0tbey : complex, complicated %
Bil (N): building; a structure with a roof and walls. 
Biz (D): busy/busily; preoccupied. <> v0tbiz : free, unoccupied
Bl0 (V): to blast (something); cause to explode; detonate; pop; burst. <> v0tbl0 : to crush; cause to implode; violently squeeze. %
Ble (D): blank; bare; bald. <> v0tble : coloured; decorated.
Blw (D): blue. <> v0tblw : orange %
Bly (N): blood. 
Bok (N): block; brick; rectangular prism; a solid geometric object. <> v0tbok : mortar, glue
Bon (N): bone. 
Bor (N): border; outline; frame. <> v0tbor : interior
Br9 (V): to breathe (something). 
Brc (V): to brush (hair); comb.
Brd (N): bird.
Bre (N): bread; roll.
Brk (V): to break (something); snap; shatter; tear; rip.
Brt (D): bright/brightly; light; shining. <> v0tbrt : dark, darkly, shading. %
Brv (D): brave; bold/boldly; courageous; confident. <> v0tbrv : afraid, cowardly, nervous %
Bud (N): butter. 
Bum (N): bump; lump; pile; mound. <> v0tbum : depression, ulcer, hole 
Bun (N): button; key; an input device which is pressed. <> v0tbun : dial, an input device you turn 
But (P): but; however; in contrast.
Buy (P): by; happening by means of; with.
Buz (N): buzz; hum; hiss. <> v0tbuz : tone, note
Bwk (N): book. 
Bwn (P): between; among; within. <> v0tbwn : around, surrounding %
Byd (D): beautiful/beautifully; pretty. <> v0tbyd : ugly, unattrative
Byf (P): before. <> v0tbyf : after %
Byk (P): because.
Bym (V): to become (something). 
Byn (N): bean; legume.
Byp (N): beep; blip; chirp; squeak. <> v0tbyp : boop; woof; growl
Bys (V): to bounce (something); cause to bounce; reflect; deflect.
Byt (V): to bite (something).
C0l (D): all; every. <> v0tc0l : none, no- %
C0n (P): on (something); on top of; supported by. <> v0tc0n : off of %
C0p (N): shop; store.
Cak (V): to act (like something); perform (as something); behave as; pose as.
Cas (V): to ask (a question).
Caw (V): to shower (a substance); spray.
Ceg (N): egg. <> v0tceg : sperm, semen.
Cek (V): to shake (something). 
Cen (D): any; no particular instance of. <> v0tcen : particular, not just any.
Cep (N): shape; form; design; layout; structure.
Cif (P): if; happening under the condition that.
Cik (N): chicken.
Cin (P): in; inside of; within. <> v0tcin : out, outside of
Cit (N): shit, vulgar form of v0tfwd.
Con (N): ocean; sea. <> v0tcon : continent
Cot (V): to show; point; draw attention to; demonstrate; indicate; reveal. <> v0tcot : to hide, conceal %
Coy (V): to enjoy (something); like; prefer. <> v0tcoy : to dislike %
Crn (V): to earn (something); deserve; merit. 
Crt (N): shirt.
Cup (D): up. <> v0tcup : down %
Cwd (D): should; appropriate; proper/properly; supposed to.
Cwg (N): sugar. 
Cwp (N): shoe. 
Cwr (D): sure; certain/certainly. <> v0tcwr : unsure, uncertain %
Cwt (V): to shoot (ammunition); fire. 
Cyp (N): sheep; lamb. 
D0g (N): dog.
D0k (N): document; essay; article.
D0l (N): dollar.
D0m (D): automatic/automatically; with no external intervention. <> v0tdom : manual, manually %
Dam (V): to damn, to curse. <> v0tdam : to bless
Dan (V): to understand; comprehend. <> v0tdan : to be confused by
Dav (V): to advertise (something). <> v0tdav : to warn against 
Def (V): to defend (something/someone); protect; guard; keep safe; preserve; conserve.
Dej (N): danger; peril. <> v0tdej : safety, security %
Dem (V): to demand (something); request; order; command.
Der (N): direction; way; path.
Des (V): to describe (something); explain; report.
Det (V): to identify (something); recognize; be familiar with.
Dey (N): day; either 24 hours or the period of sunlight. <> v0tdey : night %
Dic (N): dish; plate.
Dif (D): different; differing; contrasting. <> v0tdif : same, identical %
Dig (V): to dig (in something). <> v0tdig : bury %
Dim (N): atom. 
Dip (V): to depend (on something); be controlled or determined by; rely.
Div (V): to divide (something); split; distribute. <> v0tdiv : to combine, unite %
Diz (N): disease; illness; sickness; germ. <> v0tdiz : health %
Dof (N): dough.
Dor (N): door; gate.
Drt (N): dirt; soil; ground.
Dun (D): done; finished; complete/completely. <> v0tdun : unfinished, incomplete %
Dus (N): dust; powder.
Duz (D): does; makes the sentence a question (optional; removes ambiguity). 
Dwn (V): to do (something); perform (an action); be involved with; participate in. <> v0tdwn : to undo %
F0n (D): often; frequent/frequently; occupational/occupationally; as a job; routinely; as the primary purpose; as a tool for. <> v0tf0n : rarely, infrequently %
F0s (N): office.
Fac (D): fancy; formal. <> v0tfac : casual, casually %
Fam (N): family.
Fas (D): fast; quick/quickly. <> v0tfas : slow, slowly %
Fe9 (N): feather.
Fen (N): friend. <> v0tfen : enemy, rival %
Fer (D): fair/fairly; just; right. <> v0tfer : unfair, unjust %
Fes (N): face (of a person or animal).
Fet (V): to fight (someone); attack.
Fic (N): fish.
Fid (V): to find; come to know where something is; discover. <> v0tfid : lose track of. %
Fig (N): flag.
Fim (N): woman; female.
Fiq (N): finger; toe. 
Fis (D): first; initial. <> v0tfis : last, final, ultimate %
Fiv (D): five.
Fl0 (D): flat; even; smooth. <> v0tfl0 : rough, uneven
Flo (N): floor. <> v0tflo : ceiling %
Fly (N): flower.
Fod (D): forward. <> v0tfod : back, backward %
Fok (V): to focus (on something); pay attention to; concentrate on. <> v0tfok : ignore %
Fom (N): foam; sponge; cake.
Fon (N): phone; telephone.
For (P): for; intended for; for the purpose of; so that; to. <> v0tfor : against; intended to prevent %
Fot (N): foot; a unit of length.
Fre (D): in a fraction; over; -th/-nd; precedes a number.
Frn (N): furniture.
Fro (N): friction.
Frt (P): in front of. <> v0tfrt : behind, in back of %
Frw (N): fruit.
Fry (D): free/freely. <> v0tfry : constrained %
Fuk (V): to fuck, vulgar.
Ful (D): full; with no space remaining. <> v0tful : empty %
Fun (D): funny; humorous. <> v0tfun : tragic, sad %
Fwc (N): meat; flesh; muscle. 
Fwd (N): food. <> v0tfwd : crap, poop, polite term for 'cit' %
Fwl (N): fuel. <> v0tfwl : oxidizer
Fwr (D): four.
Fwt (N): foot; a part of the body.
Fyc (D): flashing; blinking; sparkling; glimmering.
Fyl (V): to feel (an object or emotion); sense.
Fyr (N): fire.
G0r (N): garbage; waste; trash. <> v0tg0r : treasure %
Gal (N): gallon.
Gat (D): exact; precise; specific; particular. <> v0tgat : general %
Gem (N): game; competition; sport.
Ger (D): angry/angrily; mad. <> v0tger : patient, placid
Get (V): to get (something); receive.
Gil (N): english; the language. <> v0tgil : the v0tgil language %
Gis (N): glasses; used to aid vision.
Gle (N): glass; a transparent material.
Gof (V): to go (on a surface); travel; move one's self.
Gon (N): organ (of the body).
Gos (N): ghost; spirit.
Gr0 (N): grass.
Gre (D): gray/grey.
Grp (N): group; category.
Gry (V): to agree (with something or someone). <> v0tgry : to disagree %
Gul (D): guilty; shameful; sorry. <> v0tgul : innocent %
Guv (N): government; a system of law. <> v0tguv : anarchy
Gwd (D): good/well. <> v0tgwd : bad %
Gyn (D): green. <> v0tgyn : red %
Gyt (V): to greet (someone); welcome. <> v0tgyt : to say farewell, goodbye %
H0l (D): hollow; with an empty cavity. <> v0th0l : filled, without gaps %
Han (N): hand; a part of the body.
Hap (D): happy/happily; glad. <> v0thap : sad, sadly %
Hat (N): hat.
Hav (V): to have; own; possess.
Hed (N): head; a part of the body.
Hen (D): happening; occurring.
Hep (V): to help (to do something); assist in. <> v0thep : to hinder %
Her (N): hair; fur; wool.
Hev (D): heavy/heavily. <> v0thev : light %
Hey (N): hello. <> v0they : goodbye %
Hit (V): to hit (something); beat; strike; crash into. <> v0thit : to miss 
Hol (N): hole; pit.
Hom (N): home.
Hos (N): house.
Hot (D): horizontal; perpendicular to gravity.
Hrt (V): to hurt (something); damage; harm; injure. <> v0thrt : to heal, repair %
Hwd (V): to hold (something); grab; physically support.
Hwk (N): hook.
Hyr (V): to hear.
J0b (N): job; occupation.
J0p (V): to drop (something); make fall.
J0r (V): to draw (an image).
Jak (D): actual; real; existing. <> v0tjak : fake, not real, nonexistent %
Jed (N): edge.
Jek (P): except; not including.
Jem (N): gem; crystal; jewel.
Jer (N): air.
Jor (P): or; either one.
Jum (V): to jump (over something).
Jus (V): to adjust (something).
Jwr (P): during (something); not necessarily from the start to end of.
Jws (N): juice.
K0d (N): quality; trait.
K0f (N): coffee. <> v0tkof : soporific, tranquilizer
K0m (D): calm/calmly.
K0p (V): to copy (something); make one more; duplicate; multiply.
K0r (N): car.
K0x (N): cloth; fabric.
K0z (V): to cause (something); make happen; be the reason for; so; therefore. <> v0tk0z : to prevent %
Kan (V): can; capable of; able to do (something).
Kap (N): capsule; pellet; pill; pod.
Kas (V): to carry (something); bring.
Kat (N): cat.
Kaw (N): cow; cattle.
Keb (N): wire; cable.
Kef (D): careful/carefully; alert; prudent; cautious; gentle/gently. <> v0tkef : careless
Kel (V): to collect (something); gather.
Ken (D): common/commonly; normal; usual; ordinary; regular; typical. <> v0tken : strange, uncommon, unusual, rare. %
Kep (N): concept; idea; thought; topic; subject.
Ker (V): to care about (something); have concern for; worry about; respect.
Kes (N): extent; degree; amount; quantity; used for uncountable items or actions.
Ket (V): to connect (something); join; attach. <> v0tket : to disconnect, detach %
Kev (D): clever; smart; intelligent. <> v0tkev : stupid, dumb, idiotic %
Key (D): okay; decent/decently; acceptable. <> v0tkey : unacceptable, not okay %
Kin (V): to continue (something); keep doing.
Kip (N): clip; clamp; used for attaching things.
Kit (N): kind; type; sort.
Kl0 (N): cloud; smoke.
Klo (N): clothes; for wearing.
Klr (D): clear/clearly; transparent. <> v0tklr : unclear %
Kly (D): clean. <> votkly : unclean, dirty, messy %
Kod (N): code.
Kol (V): to be equal to; be the same as; be identical to. <> v0tkol : to be totally different from.
Kon (V): to count (something); find the quantity of.
Kor (D): correct/correctly; right. <> v0tkor : wrong, incorrect %
Kot (N): coat; jacket; clothes for cold weather.
Koy (V): to contain; include; encompass.
Kr0 (P): across.
Krn (N): corn.
Kro (D): crazy/crazily; mad; wild. <> v0tkro : tame, docile, sane %
Krt (D): creative/creatively; innovative. <> v0tkrt : uncreative, conservative
Krv (D): curved; round.
Kry (V): to cry (speech); weep.
Kuc (V): to control (something); drive; manipulate; rule.
Kuf (D): comfortable. <> v0tkuf : uncomfortable %
Kul (N): color.
Kup (N): cup; bucket; bowl.
Kut (V): to cut (something); chop; shear; slice.
Kuv (V): to cover (something); wrap. <> v0tkuv : to uncover, unwrap %
Kwd (D): could; the verb could happen; possible/possibly; may; might; perhaps; maybe.
Kwp (N): company; business.
Kwt (V): to compute (a result); calculate.
Kyt (D): cute; adorable. <> v0tkyt : uncute, mature
L0g (N): logic; reason; sense. <> v0tl0g : illogic, unreason, insanity
L0k (V): to lock (something). <> v0tl0k : unlock %
L0m (D): almost; nearly.
L0q (D): long; with a great length; tall. <> v0tl0q : short, brief %
L0r (D): large; big; great. <> v0tl0r : small, little %
L0s (D): also; too; in addition.
L0t (D): a lot of; many. <> v0tl0t : few, less %
L0v (N): law; rule; regulation. <> v0tl0v : chaos
Lad (D): loud/loudly; noisy. <> v0tlad : quiet %
Laf (V): to laugh (at something).
Lan (N): land; parcel; lot; country.
Lat (N): outlet (for electricity or another resource); spout; dispenser; faucet.
Leb (N): label; tag.
Lef (D): left; leftward; toward the left. <> v0tlef : right %
Lek (N): electricity.
Leq (N): language. 
Ler (N): lever.
Let (V): to let (something occur); allow; permit. <> v0tlet : to forbid, deny %
Lev (N): level (of a game, building, etc); layer; shelf.
Lic (N): liquid.
Lim (N): limb; appendage; neck; arm; leg; branch.
Lis (N): list.
Lit (N): limit; constraint; the maximum permissible amount. <> v0tlit : infinity
Liv (D): alive; living; lively. <> v0tliv : dead %
Lok (N): lake; pond.
Lrn (V): to learn; study; research. <> v0tlrn : to forget %
Lum (N): lumber; wood.
Luv (V): to love; adore. <> v0tluv : to hate %
Lwf (P): to the left of; on the left side of. <> v0tlwf : to the right of, on the right side of %
Lwp (N): loop; a shape which has no end.
Lyf (N): leaf. 
Lyk (P): like; similar to; related to. <> v0tlyk : unlike, dissimilar to %
Lyn (N): line.
Lyr (D): early. <> v0tlyr : late %
Lyt (N): light; either light itself or a light producing source. <> v0tlyt : shadow, shade %
M0k (V): to mark (something). <> v0tm0k : to unmark, erase 
M0l (N): mollusk; soft-bellied creature; snail; octopus; squid.
M0t (N): market; economy. 
Mad (N): matter. <> v0tmad : antimatter
Mag (N): magnet.
Man (N): man; male.
Map (N): map.
Max (N): math; mathematics.
Med (N): medicine.
Mej (V): to measure (something).
Mek (V): to make (something); create; produce; cause to exist; build; construct. <> v0tmek : to unmake, destroy, delete %
Mel (N): mail; letter (to be sent as mail).
Mem (N): member; an individual in a group.
Mer (V): to marry (someone); become a spouse of. <> v0tmer : to divorce %
Met (N): material; substance.
Mid (N): middle; centre.
Mil (N): milk.
Min (N): minute.
Mis (N): mistake; accident.
Mit (N): mint.
Mod (N): metal.
Mok (N): machine; device.
Mon (D): main; chief; principal; primary.
Mor (D): more; -er; to a greater extent; "long" becomes "longer". <> v0tmor : less %
Mos (D): -est; to the greatest extent; most; "long" becomes "longest". <> v0tmos : least %
Mot (D): most; the majority; almost all. <> v0tmos : minority of, few of, almost none %
Muc (N): mushroom; fungus.
Mul (N): mile.
Mun (N): money; currency. <> v0tmun : debt
Mwl (N): mammal.
Mwn (N): moon.
Mwv (V): to move (something); cause to go; cause to travel.
Mwz (N): music.
Myn (V): to mean (something); signify; represent; imply.
Myt (V): to meet (someone).
Myw (V): to amuse (someone); entertain; be fun to.
N0b (N): knob; handle; for holding or for opening a door.
N0t (D): not; makes a word false; no (in response to a question).
Nam (N): animal; creature.
Nap (N): napkin; tissue.
Nec (N): nature; phenomena not made by man. <> v0tnec : artifice, unnatural things, technology %
Ned (P): instead of; in the place of.
Nem (N): name; title.
Ner (N): energy. <> v0tner : enthalpy
Nes (D): next; following. <> v0tnes : previous %
Net (N): net; mesh.
Nev (N): environment; setting; surroundings; context; circumstance.
Nic (V): to interest (someone); be interesting to; fascinate.
Nif (N): information; data; signal.
Nin (D): nine.
Nol (D): only; alone; by himself/herself/itself/yourself/myself/themselves/ourselves; just; without anything else; without the assistance or company of other people; with no other action; with no other quality; in no other place.
Non (V): to know; remember.
Nor (D): north. <> v0tnor : south %
Nos (V): to notice; become aware of.
Not (N): note; a reminder for someone.
Noy (V): to annoy (someone); be annoying to; irritate.
Nuf (D): enough; sufficient/sufficiently. <> v0tnuf : not enough, insufficient %
Num (N): number; quantity; amount; used for countable items.
Nut (N): nut.
Nuy (N): I/me; the speaker.
Nuz (N): noise; sound.
Nwb (D): new/newly; young. <> v0tnwb : old, traditional %
Nwz (N): news; tabloid.
Nyd (V): to need; require; must.
Nyr (P): near; close to; around; along; with a short distance. <> v0tnyr : far from, away from %
Nys (D): nice; kind. <> v0tnys : unkind, mean, unfriendly %
P0k (N): project.
P0l (P): parallel to; along. <> v0tp0l : perpendicular to %
P0n (N): horse; pony.
P0p (D): popular; cool; famous. <> v0tp0p : unpopular, lame, infamous
P0r (N): part; piece; component.
P0s (N): pasta.
Pad (N): pattern.
Pak (N): plastic.
Pan (N): pants.
Pat (N): planet.
Pax (N): path; pathway; passage; passageway.
Ped (N): party.
Pek (N): picture; image.
Pel (N): pencil.
Pen (N): pen; for writing.
Pep (N): paper.
Per (N): parent; mother; father. <> v0tper : child %
Pig (N): pig.
Pik (V): to pick (an option); choose; decide; select; vote for.
Pil (N): pillow; cushion.
Pin (N): pain; ache.
Pl0 (V): to plan; scheme.
Ple (V): to play (a game or instrument).
Plo (N): plant.
Plw (N): place; position; region; area; location; point.
Ply (D): please; makes a verb imperative.
Pod (D): proud/proudly. <> v0tpod : embarassed %
Pog (N): program (on a computer); application.
Pol (N): police; security.
Pon (V): to open (something). <> v0tpon : to close %
Por (V): to pour (a substance); spill.
Pos (N): price; cost.
Pot (N): point; grade; a unit of score.
Poy (D): polite/politely; civilized. <> v0tpoy : impolite, rude %
Poz (N): prize; reward; award; bonus.
Pr0 (D): probable/probably; likely.
Pre (V): to predict (something); expect; infer; assume; estimate; judge; guess.
Prl (D): purple; violet. <> v0tprl : yellow %
Pro (D): professional; experienced; expert; skilled.
Prp (N): purpose; the reason for which something exists.
Prs (N): person.
Prt (V): to buy; purchase. <> v0tprt : to sell, vend %
Prw (N): problem; conflict; issue; drama; trouble; puzzle; challenge; flaw.
Pry (V): to practice (a skill); exercise.
Pub (D): public/publicly. <> v0tpub : private %
Put (N): potato.
Pwc (V): to push; apply a force; press. <> v0tpwc : to pull, stretch %
Pwn (N): pound.
Pwr (D): pure/purely. <> v0tpwr : impure %
Pwt (V): to put; place; add. <> v0tpwt : subtract, remove %
Pyt (N): pizza.
R0d (D): ready; prepared. <> v0tr0d : unready, unprepared %
R0k (N): rock; stone.
R0t (N): art.
R0x (N): arthropod; animal with exoskeleton; insect; crustacean; bug.
Rad (N): order; permutation; organization.
Rek (N): rectangle.
Rel (N): rail; track; for holding or for trains.
Ren (N): rain.
Rep (V): to respond (with an action); reply; react.
Req (D): ranked; having a place in an order; -st/-nd/-rd/-th; a number will follow; used for ordinal numerals.
Res (V): to rest (on something); lie; take a break; relax.
Ret (V): to relate (to something).
Rid (V): to ride (a vehicle or animal).
Rin (N): ornament; decoration.
Rit (V): to write (text). <> v0trit : to erase %
Riv (N): river; stream.
Rob (N): rubber.
Rod (N): road; street.
Rog (V): to organize (something); sort; make neat. <> v0trog : disorganize, mix, scramble, stir. %
Ron (N): range; span; length; interval.
Rov (P): over; above; high. <> v0trov : under, below, beneath %
Rox (N): earth; the planet. <> v0trox : heaven
Rub (V): to rub (a surface); drag on.
Rug (N): rug; carpet; mat.
Run (V): to run (on something).
Rus (N): rice.
Rut (N): reptile.
Rwm (N): room; chamber.
Rwv (V): to approve; confirm; praise; support. <> v0trwv : to disapprove, scold %
Ryc (V): to reach (for something).
Ryd (V): to read (text).
Ryn (N): rodent.
Rys (N): resource; nutrient; supply.
S0f (D): soft. <> v0tsof : hard, tough, firm %
S0k (N): sock.
S0l (N): solid; a state of matter.
S0n (V): to stand (on a surface).
S0r (N): stair; step.
S0s (N): sauce.
S0t (N): salt.
S0v (V): to solve (something); repair; fix.
Sac (N): sandwich.
Sal (N): salad.
San (N): sand.
Sat (N): status; state; mode.
Saw (D): sour.
Seb (V): to celebrate (something).
Sed (V): to send (something); submit.
Sef (N): self; himself; herself; itself; ourselves; themselves; yourself; yourselves; causes the verb to be reflective; refers to the subject of the containing clause.
Sek (N): ceramic; porcelain.
Sel (N): cell; part of an organism.
Sen (N): sentence.
Set (N): system.
Sev (D): seven.
Sey (V): to say (something); speak; talk; tell.
Sib (N): sibling; brother; sister.
Sic (N): string; thread; lace; rope.
Sik (D): six.
Sil (D): cylinder.
Sim (N): symbol; letter; digit; character.
Sit (V): to sit (on a surface).
Ske (V): to scare; frighten.
Sko (N): screen; monitor; display.
Skr (V): to scratch; scrape.
Skw (N): school.
Sky (N): sky.
Sle (V): to slide (on something); glide; slip.
Slw (N): slope; incline; ramp.
Sly (V): to sleep (on something). <> v0tsly : to be awake %
Sme (N): smell; odor; scent.
Sod (N): soda.
Sop (N): soap.
Soq (D): strong; fit; powerful. <> v0tsoq : weak %
Sot (N): science.
Spe (D): special; original; unique.
Spr (V): to spread (something); cause to spread.
Spw (N): space; void; gap; vacuum; the absence of anything.
Spy (D): spicy.
Srf (N); surface; skin.
Srk (N): circle.
Srt (D): straight; extending or moving in one direction only; direct.
St0 (N): start; beginning; the start of an object or span. <> v0tst0 the end %
Ste (V): to stay (in a group); remain; continue to be; be in the rest.
Sto (N): story; tale; rumor.
Str (N): star; sun.
Stw (V): to stick to (something); adhere to.
Sty (D): still; still true; not moving.
Sud (N): side; face (of an object).
Sug (V): suggest (to do something); advise; direct; instruct; guide; lead.
Sum (D): some; a; an; a particular instance of (previously unmentioned).
Sup (V): to suppose (that something is true); have an opinion; think that; believe.
Suy (N): sign.
Swo (N): switch; for marking and breaking a circuit.
Swp (N): soup.
Swy (D): sweet. <> v0tswy : bitter.
Syc (V): to see (something).
Syd (N): seed.
Sym (V): to seem like (something); appear to be; look like.
Tak (V): to trick (someone); deceive; fool.
Tan (N): town; village; city.
Tas (N): task; job.
Tc0 (N): chocolate.
Tce (V): to change (something); make different; modify.
Tco (N): chair; couch.
Tcr (V): to try (something); attempt; make an effort. <> v0ttcr : to avoid doing something %
Tcw (D): true/truly; in fact; did; indeed; yes (in response to a question). <> v0ttcw : false %
Tcy (N): cheese.
Teb (N): table.
Tec (N): texture; how something feels.
Tem (N): time; period; moment; either a specific point or a span.
Tep (V): to taper (to a point); gradually become narrow until converging; be sharp toward.
Tes (V): to test; experiment (with something).
Tey (V): to take (something); actively remove. <> v0ttey : to give, donate, provide, share %
Til (P): until.
Tis (N): taste; flavor.
Tok (V): to check; inspect; see the status of something.
Tor (N): tree.
Tos (V): to chase (someone/something); pursue. <> v0ttos : to flee, keep away from, avoid %
Tot (D): total/totally; entire/entirely; whole; full/fully; complete/completely.
Toy (N): toy.
Trg (D): together; with each other. <> v0ttrg : separately, separate %
Trn (V): to turn (something); rotate; change the orientation of.
Trp (V): to capture; trap. <> v0ttrp : to release, let go %
Tuc (V): to touch; make contact with.
Tum (N): tomato.
Tuy (V): to tie (a string). <> v0ttuy : to untie %
Twc (D): too; excessive/excessively; to too much of an extent.
Twl (N): tool.
Twn (D): two.
Twr (P): to; towards; in the direction of. <> v0ttwr : from, away from %
Tws (V): to trust; rely on; depend on.
Tyc (V): to teach (something); educate.
Tym (N): team.
V0l (D): already.
V0t (D): anti; opposite; inverse in meaning.
Vak (N): axle; used in a hinge.
Val (N): value; worth.
Van (P): and.
Vat (P): at.
Vaz (D): as; to a certain extent; so.
Vej (N): vegetable.
Vek (V): to excite (someone); make eager. <> v0tvek : to bore, be boring %
Vel (D): available; accessible.
Veq (N): angle; degree measure; corner; joint; hinge.
Ver (D): very; to a great extent; quite. <> v0tver : slightly, a little %
Vet (D): vertical; parallel to gravity.
Vid (N): video; movie.
Vim (D): important; serious; matter; relevant.
Vis (D): viscous; thick; gooey. <> v0tvis : runny %
Vit (V): to visit; be a guest at; tour.
Viz (V): to be (an instance/kind of).
Vok (N): vehicle.
Vot (D): eight.
Vun (P): of; originating from; possessed by; related to.
Vwd (D): would; conditional or hypothetical.
Vwn (N): oven; stove; grill.
Vyn (D): even; emphasizes something surprising or extreme.
W0k (V): to walk (on something).
W0l (N): wall.
W0n (V): to want; wish for; hope for; seek.
W0t (N): water.
We9 (D): whether; expresses the truth of a statement.
Web (N): web; internet.
Wed (N): word.
Weg (V): to wait (for something).
Wek (V): to work (on something); do labor.
Wel (P): while; during; for; for the duration of; from the start to the end of.
Wer (V): to wear (an article).
Wet (D): wet; damp. <> v0twet : dry %
Wev (V): to wave (something); move back and forth; swing.
Wey (N): way; method; means; manner; mode.
Wic (N): wind; gust; breeze.
Wid (N): window.
Wil (D): will; going to; causes a verb to be in the future tense.
Wim (D): which; whom; extracts the direct or prepositional object from a situation noun so that the object takes the place of the situation noun in the parent clause.
Win (V): to win (a competition); be victorious in; succeed at. <> v0twin : lose, fail at %
Wis (D): which; who; extracts the subject from a situation noun so that the subject takes the place of the situation noun in the parent clause.
Wit (D): which; interrogative identity.
Wix (P): with; along with; accompanied by.
Wo9 (N): weather; climate.
Wod (D): wide.
Wol (N): world.
Wom (D): warm; a little hot. <> v0twom : cool %
Wor (N): war; battle; combat. <> v0twor : peace %
Wun (D): one.
Wuz (D): was; -ed; causes a verb to be in the past tense.
Wyl (N): wheel.
Wyn (D): on; active/actively; doing something. <> v0twyn : inactive, off %
Wys (D): white. <> v0twys : black %
Wyt (N): wheat.
Xik (D): thick; large in the tertiary direction. <> v0txik : thin %
Xiq (N): thing; the most general noun.
Xok (V): to think (about something).
Xro (V): to throw (something); toss. <> v0txro : catch
Xrw (P): through; in and out of.
Xry (D): three.
Yer (N): year.
Yol (N): oil.
Yos (D): east. <> v0tyos : west, western %
Yot (V): to eat (something); consume; drink. <> v0tyot : to piss, poop %
Ywl (D): useful; helpful. <> v0tywl : useless %
Ywn (N): you; the person being addressed.
Ywt (N): unit.
Ywz (V): to use.
Zam (N): example; model.
Zyp (D): easy/easily. <> v0tzyp : difficult, hard %
Zyr (D): zero.

3.2 Visual Vocabulary


















3.3 Set Compound Nouns

A "table of correlatives" can be made for vötgil.

       | cöl  all   | sum some    | wit what | ðis this | ðat that  | vötcöl no 
xiq    | cölxiq     | sumxiq      | witxiq   | ðisxiq   | ðatxiq    | vötcölxiq
thing  | everything | something   | what     | this     | that      | nothing
prs    | cölprs     | sumprs      | witprs   | ðisprs   | ðatprs    | vötcölprs
person | everybody  | somebody    | who      | they     | they      | nobody
plw    | cölplw     | sumplw      | witplw   | ðisplw   | ðatplw    | vötcölplw
place  | everywhere | somewhere   | where    | here     | there     | nowhere
tem    | cöltem     | sumtem      | wittem   | ðistem   | ðattem    | vötcöltem
time   | forever    | some time   | when     | now      | then      | never
lög    | cöllög     | sumlög      | witlög   | ðislög   | ðatlög    | vötcöllög
reason | all reason | some reason | why      | thus     | therefore | no reason
wey    | cölwey     | sumwey      | witwey   | ðiswey   | ðatwey    | vötcölwey
method | all ways   | some way    | how      | this way | thereby   | no way
dey    | cöldey     | sumdey      | witdey   | ðisdey   | ðatdey    | vötcöldey
day    | every day  | someday     | what day | today    | that day  | no day

I don't know why vötcöl is used here instead of nöt, except perhaps for precision.
Some english words that used to fit into this chart, such as hereby, are too
archaic to be used as explanation.

3.4 Proper Nouns

All of these are made by taking the English name of the place and
fitting it into v0tgil phonology, and translating adjectives
and nouns. Some use instead the endonym if it fits the v0tgil 
phonotactics better than the English name.

This is by no means a complete list...

Languages
---------
gil : English
Farran leq : French
Yittal leq : Italian
Rabbik leq : Arabic
Ruskuy leq : Russian
Pwttoq leq : Standard Mandarin

Constructed Languages
---------------------
Sperönton : Esperanto
Tokkyppon : toki pona
Vollappyk : Volapük
Klyqon leq : Klingon
Lojbön : Lojban
Dovvözzwl : Dovahzul
Doxrök leq : Dothraki

Oceans and Continents of the World
----------------------------------
Yurrup : Europe
Juy : Asia
Frk : Africa
Lantik Con : Atlantic Ocean
Pasfik Con : Pacific Ocean
9yt Merriksis : the Americas 
Nor Merrik : North America
V0tnor Merrik : South America
Yindin Con : Indian Ocean
Tartik Con : Arctic Ocean
V0ttartik : Antarctica

Countries in America: 
-------------------- 
Merrik : America (the USA)
9yt v0tdivdid lanzis vun Merrik : the United States of America 
Kannud : Canada 
Meksik : Mexico
Kullum : Colombia
Perrwv : Peru
Brazil : Brazil 
Jentyn : Argentina
Tcyley : Chile
Kwador : Ecuador

Cities and States in America:
-----------------------------
Torrön : Toronto
Vancwvrer : Vancouver
Monröl : Montreal
NwbYor : New York
Kalfor : California
Sanfansik : San Francisco
Lossanjelzis : Los Angeles
Wöcciqtun : Washington
Wöcciqtundys : Washington DC
Pwrtorrik : Puerto Rico

Places in Europe:
-----------------
Yurrup : Europe
Yurrup v0tdivrey : European Union
Ruccuy : Russia
Brytan : Britain
Gillan : England
Sk0tan : Scotland
Wellan : Wales
Korn0l : Cornwall
9yt Ywnkey : the UK
9yt v0tdivdid kucrerlan vun l0r Brytan van nor Yurlan : the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Pikniqlan vun Yurlan : Republic of Ireland
Jrmman : Germany
Farran : France
Yittal : Italy
Trklan : Turkey
Swyden : Sweden
Denmar : Denmark
Norwey : Norway
Tcekuy : Czechia
W0sterruy : Austria
Slovakkuy : Slovakia
Slovennuy : Slovenia
Hrvvatsk0 : Croatia
M0gy0rsag : Hungary
Bosnuy van Hertcegovvin : Bosnia & Herzegovina
Srbbuy : Serbia
Tcrnaggor : Montenegro
Ckyper : Albania
Kossov : Kosovo
Nor Makkeddon : North Macedonia
Rommennuy : Romania
Bulgarruy : Bulgaria
Hellas : Greece
Beljum : Belgium
Nedderlan : Netherlands
Luksembrg : Luxembourg
Finlan : Finland
Stonuy : Estonia
Latvuy : Latvia
Leytuv : Lithuania
Belrws : Belarus
Ywkren : Ukraine

Cities in Europe:
-----------------
Perris    : Paris
Lundun    : London
Brllin    : Berlin
M0scaw    : Moscow
Rom       : Rome
Vyn       : Vienna (Wien)
Buddappec : Budapest
Varcav    : Warsaw
Madrid    : Madrid
Lisbon    : Lisbon
St0kom    : Stockholm
Brusel    : Brussels

Places in Asia:
--------------
Joqgwo : China (Zhongguo)
Beyjin : Beijing
Barrat : India (Bharat)
Ruccuy : Russia
Syrruy : Syria
S0dduy Reybuy : Saudi Arabia
Yisrel : Israel
HoqKoq : Hong Kong
Nyhhon : Japan (Nihon)
Tokkyo : Tokyo
Pakkistan : Pakistan
Baqladdec : Bangladesh
Fillippyn : Philippines
Yirrak : Iraq
Yirran : Iran
Lubn0n : Lebanon
V0tdivdid Rab Kucrerlanzis : United Arab Emirates
Kazzaktan : Kazakhstan
Wozbektan : Uzbekistan 
Kwrgwstan : Kyrgyzstan
Trkmentan : Turkmenistan

Places in Africa:
----------------
v0tnor Frk : South Africa
Nuyjyr : Nigeria
Nydjer : Niger
Swddan : Sudan
v0tnor Swddan : South Sudan
Jypcinlan : Egypt
Xoppinlan : Ethiopia
Prssisguv Pikniqlan vun Koqgaw : D. R. Congo
Pikniqlan vun Koqgaw : R. of Congo
Cad : Chad

Places in Oceania
-----------------
Strrel : Australia
Nwb Zyllan : New Zealand
Donnyj : Indonesia
Papwan Nwb Gyn : Papua New Guinea

3.5 Third Person Pronouns

V0tgil has no monomorphemic words corresponding to the English
third person pronouns like he, she, they, and it. Instead, v0tgil uses
generic nouns like prs, fim, man, b0j, xiq, or nam, combined with the 
definite and demonstrative descriptors 9yt, 9is, 9at.

However, if a previously mentioned noun has as its head a monomorphemic
v0tgil word like say, kat, it is unnecessary to genericize that to nam,
since 9atkat is just as long as 9atnam.

3.6 Etymology

V0tgil words are based on English, as is obvious, but in particular
they're based on iqglic, a previous english-based language by Jack Eisenmann, 
which had the same alphabet and a similar grammar as v0tgil, but had words
that were just words in Jack's English dialect, written out in the
v0tgil alphabet. Most of v0tgil's dictionary is adapted from these words,
so some description of iqglic can explain v0tgil words that may surprise
people who speak other dialects of English.

Iqglic affricates T and D before R, so "true" becomes 'tcrw', from which 
v0tgil 'tcw', and "during" to 'djeriq' to 'jwr'. A second result is that 
the consonant clusters 'dr' and 'tr' don't appear in v0tgil.

Iqglic writes the English long I as 'uy', rather than 'ay', hence we get 
'buy' for "by". The long I isn't normally pronounced as /ʌj/ in English 
except by Canadians (such as myself), so these words may confuse people.

Iqglic, and therefore Vötgil as well, transcribe the typical 5 vowels
A, E, I, O, U, of many languages, with the letters 
ö, e, y, o, w. This results in the spelling pöstu for pasta, hence
vötgil pös, and pytsu for pizza, hence vötgil pyt.

Unrelated to iqglic, many words in v0tgil have random consonants
added to them to make sure they are CVC, hence and -> van, or -> jor.
The most common affixed consonants are c, v, and j.

Some words have their letters altered because another word already exists,
for example "pony" to 'p0n' because 'pon' means "open".

4.0 More Useful Phrases

Ywn nem wit viz?         : What's your name?
Nuy nem viz _____	 : My name is ...
Ywn viz vun wit lan      : What country are you from?
Nuy viz vun Kannud       : I am from Canada (see section 3.3 for more countries)
Ywn viz man jor fim?     : Are you a man, or a woman?
Ywn wit dwn?             : What's up? or What are you doing?
Nuy w0n prt bre.	 : I want to buy bread.
Bre c0p viz wit plw?     : Where is the bakery?
9is bre hav wit pos?	 : What is the price for this bread?
9yt pos viz twn d0l.     : The price is two dollars.
Nuy wil prt.             : I'll buy it.
Ywnduznydhepniq?	 : Do you need help?
plyywzfontwrpol!         : Call police!
plyywzfontwrfyrfetrerzis! : Call fire fighters! 
plyywzfontwrmedvok!      : Call an ambulance!
Ywnvizwitsat?         : What state are you in? (How are you?)
Nuygwdviz.       : I'm good.
Nuykeyviz.       : I'm ok.
Nuyhrttidviz.    : I'm injured.
Nuyhavdiz.       : I'm sick.

4.1 Comparison of Vötgil to Breadspeak

It may be interesting to compare Vötgil with Jack Eisenmann's most recent 
conlang, Breadspeak, called in Breadspeak, Fade Kase. I have studied 
Breadspeak, but not to the same detail as Vötgil; nevertheless there are 
similarities and differences that should be noted.

Breadspeak has far fewer sounds compared to Vötgil. It uses 10 consonants
and the classic 5 vowel system. Breadspeak has no nasal sounds, unlike vötgil
which has 3. Breadspeak also has no glottal, alveopalatal or interdental 
fricatives, nor any approximants at all.

Breadspeak's vocabulary consists mostly of CVCV words with some grammatical
words being CV. It thus doesn't have consecutive consonants, even between
words, unlike vötgil which has up to three in a row in phrases like vötblw.
Like vötgil, breadspeak doesn't have consecutive vowels, and unlike vötgil, it 
even lacks any diphthongs analyzed as vowel + glide, since it has no glides.

Breadspeak's grammar adds three new categories of words to Vötgil's 4. 
The new categories are numbers, in a class of their own, conjunctions split 
off from prepositions, prefixed particles that take the place of Vötgil's 
suffixes, and enclosing particles, which delimit situation nouns instead of 
Vötgil's quotes.

Breadspeak provides a far greater variety of base sentence structures
compared to Vötgil. Where every Vötgil sentence is centred around some
verb, Breadspeak allows sentences centred on descriptors, which thus can
take the semantics of intransitive verbs; prepositions; and even allows
a sentence consisting of a noun, as a declaration of existence.

For better information about Breadspeak, see here on Jack Eisenmann's website:
Breadspeak

4.2 How to type in Vötgil

Vötgil uses two letters not found on US keyboards, ð and ö. In this document,
for ease of searching, they are represented by 9 and 0 respectively, but if 
you want to write vötgil properly, you'll need a keyboard layout that has 
these letters.

On Mac OS X, there's a keyboard layout called ABC Extended. In that layout,
you can type ð with alt-D, and ö with alt-U, O.

On Windows, a good layout is the one called United States International. You
can type ð with alt-D, and ö with alt-P.

4.2 Some Statistics of Vötgil

Vötgil has been quoted as having 600 words. This is incorrect, but the actual 
number is hard to enumerate. There are:

609 | 609 words in the main wordlist on Eisenmann's website
612 | 3 words only found in the translator (Fuk, Cit, Dam)
618 | 6 suffixes (tid, sis, nis, niq, rey, rer)
620 | 2 extra suffix forms (did, zis)

5.0 Bibliography

In making a formal grammar, some have said that I have made a "new v0tgil".
That wasn't my intention at all, and it isn't what this is. This document is 
merely a more detailed and technical documentation of the language, 
especially for linguists.

Below I have reproduced and linked to the major source of my work on grammar,
the v0tgil video lessons by Jack Eisenmann. Citations to these are in the form
of superscript with the lesson and sentence number like: ᴸ¹ˢ¹ or just a lesson 
number, if I'm just citing the entire lesson.

5.1 Video lessons and transcriptions

Transcript of v0tgil lessons by Jack Eisenmann:

Introduction to v0tgil lessons

video Hey! That's how you say hello in v0tgil, my constructed language. I'm going to release a series of videos describing the technical details of v0tgil. There will be six lessons, each contained in a video. Here is a list of the lesson titles: Phonology Orthography Parts of Speech and Word Order Suffixes Situation Nouns Semantics Feel free to watch as many or as few of the videos as you want The lessons will refer to mostly level 1 and level 2 v0tgil words. The word lists, along with many other v0tgil resources may be found in the description of every video. Stay tuned!

V0tgil Lesson 1: Phonology

video 1 V0tgil and English share many of the same sounds. 2 Each letter in v0tgil represents exactly one sound. 3 There are 28 letters in the v0tgil alphabet, including 8 vowels and 20 consonants. 4 First we will examine the vowels: 5 They are W, O, U, 0 (O with umlaut), A, E, I and Y. 6 W makes the /u/ sound as in boot or soon. 7 O makes the long /o/ sound as in boat or dome. 8 U makes the short /ʌ/ sound as in but or some. 9 0 with umlaut makes the short /ɑ/ sound as in bought or gone. 10 A makes the /a/ sound as in bat or fan. 11 E makes the short /ɛ/ sound as in bet or then. 12 I makes the short /ɪ/ sound as in bit or dim. 13 Y makes the /i/ sound as in beet or seem. 14 Now we will look at consonants. 15 Most consonants make the same sound as in english: 16 These include H N M L R K G S Z T F V P and B. 17 Note that G is always hard as in get, and S is always unvoiced as in cats. 18 The unusual letters are Q C J X and 9 (edh). 19 Q makes the NG sound as in rang or sing. 20 C makes the SH sound as in shot or ship. 21 J makes the /ʒ/ sound as in measure or fusion. 22 X makes the unvoiced TH sound as in theater or thick. 23 9 makes the voiced TH sound as in the or that. 24 That's all for the lesson, thanks for watching!

V0tgil Lesson 2: Orthography

video 1 V0tgil spelling is simple and consistent. 2 Every word contains exactly 3 letters and at least one vowel. 3 The first letter of a word is always a consonant. 4 Example words include: syc, to see; man, man; and l0r, large. 5 W and Y may sometimes behave as consonants. 6 For example: w0n, to want; and yer, year. 7 R may sometimes behave as a vowel. 8 For example: lrn, to learn; and grp, group. 9 Words never end in U, A, or I. 10 Almost every v0tgil word originates form an english word. 11 If the English word contains exactly 3 sounds, the corresponding v0tgil word usually sounds the same. 12 For example: hav, to have; and for, for. 13 If the English word contains more than 3 sounds, the extra sounds are usually truncated. 14 For example: guv, government; and byf, before. 15 If the English word contains fewer than 3 sounds, an extra sound is usually added to the end. 16 For example: non, to know; and 9yt, the. 17 If the English word starts with a vowel, one of 3 things usually happens: 18 One. An extra consonant is added to the beginning. 19 This consonant is usually C, J, or V. 20 For example: cif, if; and jor, or. 21 Two. The vowel is excluded. 22 For example: baw, about. 23 Three. The vowel and first consonant switch places. 24 For example: nol, only. 25 That's all for this lesson, thanks for watching!

V0tgil Lesson 3: Parts of Speech and Word Order

video 1 V0tgil has 4 parts of speech: Noun, Verb, Descriptor, Preposition. 2 A noun is a person, place, or thing. 3 For example: prs, person; and tem, time. 4 Note that v0tgil nouns also include pronouns. 5 For example: nuy, I; and ywn, you. 6 A verb is an action, state, or occurence. 7 For example: wek, to work; and nyd, to need. 8 A sentence contains a noun subject, then a verb, then optionally a noun direct object. 9 For example: ywnwek, you are working; and nuyfidlan, I find land. 10 All verbs in v0tgil are transitive. 11 This means that all verbs are able to accept a direct object. 12 V0tgil words which originate from intransitive English words, are still transitive. 13 For example: gof, to go on a surface; and cak, to act like something. 14 Descriptors are used to describe other words in a sentence. 15 Descriptors encompass English adjectives, adverbs, articles and numbers. 16 For example: gwd, good; 9yt, the; and ver, very. 17 A descriptor is always placed before the word it modifies. 18 For example: 9ytdey, the day; gwdsyc, to see well; and vergwd, very good. 19 Prepositions express relationships between nouns and other words. 20 Note that v0tgil prepositions also include conjunctions. 21 For example: cin, in; and jwr, during. 22 Prepositions are placed between the words they modify. 23 For example: fimcinsumbil, woman in a building; and gofjwr9ytdey, to go during the day. 24 When two nouns, verbs, or prepositions are placed adjacent to each other, the construction means that the second word is of or related to the first word. 25 For example: guvlan, government land; sycfok, to look at; cintwr, into. 26 Note that nouns can be put next to each other to form possessives. 27 For example: nuybil, my building; and steve lan, steve's land. 28 That's all for this lesson, thanks for watching!

V0tgil Lesson 4: Suffixes

video 1 A variety of suffixes may be placed after v0tgil words. 2 Each suffix contains exactly 3 letters, just as words do. 3 To indicate that a noun is plural, add the suffix sis or zis. 4 Use sis when the last letter of the noun is an unvoiced consonant; otherwise, use zis. 5 As a general rule of thumb, choose the suffix which sounds easier to pronounce with the given word. 6 For example: grpsis, groups; and plwzis, places. 7 Note that the suffixes sis and zis may also be used to pluralize pronouns. 8 For example: nuyzis, we; and ywnzis, you all. 9 If you add the suffix tid or did after a verb, the verb becomes a descriptor. 10 The word the descriptor modifies is the direct object of the verb's action. 11 In other words, did and tid convert a verb into a passive participle. 12 Like with sis and zis, use tid when the last letter of the verb is an unvoiced consonant, otherwise use did. 13 For example: kuctidprs, controlled person; and teydidmun, taken money. 14 Note that did and tid are not used to indicate that a verb is active and past tense. 15 For example: nuylrndid does not mean "I learned". 16 To convert a verb into a gerund noun add the suffix niq. 17 A gerund represents the state or action of the verb. 18 For example: nuysycfetniq, i see fighting, and 9ytprsk0zlrnniq, the person causes learning. 19 Note that niq is not used to convert the verb into a present participle. 20 For example: nuyvizseyniq does not mean I am speaking. 21 The suffix rer causes a verb to become a noun which routinely performs the verb's action. 22 For example: kucrer, controller; and gofrer, traveller. 23 The suffic rer can also cause a descriptor to become a noun, which routinely has the descriptor's quality. 24 For example: gwdrer, good thing; and l0rrer, large thing. 25 Note that rer is not used to form comparatives. 26 For example: difrer does not mean more different. 27 The suffix rey causes a verb to become a noun which routinely recieves the verb's action. 28 For example: sycrey, a sight; and pwtrey, an addition. 29 The suffix nis causes a word to become a noun which represents the state or quality of the word. 30 For example: gwdnis, goodness; and nyrnis, closeness. 31 That's all for this lesson, thanks for watching!

V0tgil Lesson 5: Situation Nouns

video 1 Situation nouns are used to embed sentences within sentences. 2 Situation nouns are similar to subordinate clauses, dependent clauses or infinitives in English. 3 To create a situation noun, enclose a sentence in quotation marks. 4 A situation noun represents the state or action of the enclosed sentence. 5 A situation noun is treated as a noun in the outside sentence. 6 Let us consider 3 examples: 7 First, nuynon"ywnvizcin9ytbil". 8 The enclosed sentence is ywnvizcin9ytbil, you are in the building. 9 The outside sentence is nuynon something, I know something. 10 To represent the state or action of the enclosed sentence in English, we can add the word that before the enclosed sentence. 11 Our final translation is I know that you are in the building. 12 Second, 9ytmanw0n"havmun". 13 The enclosed sentence is havmun, have money. 14 The subject is implied because it is excluded. 15 The outside sentence is 9ytmanw0n something, the man wants something. 16 To represent the state or action of the enclosed sentence in English, we can add the word to before the enclosed sentence. 17 Our final translation is the man wants to have money. 18 Third, nuygofcif"9ytfimsey". 19 The enclosed sentence is 9ytfimsey, the woman speaks. 20 The outside sentence is nuygofcif something, I go if something. 21 In this case we don't need to add any extra english words to represent the state or action of the enclosed sentence. 22 Our final translation is I go if the woman speaks. 23 The descriptors wis and wim can be used to extract the subject or object of a situation noun respectively. 24 When wis or wim are placed before a situation noun, the situation noun represents the subject or object of the enclosed sentence, instead of the state or action. 25 We will consider two examples. 26 First, 9ytguvfidwis"9ytmanbymsoq" 27 The enclosed sentence is 9ytmanbymsoq, the man becomes strong. 28 The outside sentence is 9ytguvfid something, the government finds something. 29 Because wis precedes the situation noun, the situation noun represents the subject of the enclosed sentence. 30 In this case, 9ytman, the man, is the subject. 31 In english, we would add the word who after the man. 32 Our final translation is, the government finds the man who becomes strong. 33 Second, 9ytprssycwim"9ytperhavlan". 34 The enclosed sentence is 9ytperhavlan, the parent has land. 35 The outside sentence is 9ytprssyc something, the person sees something. 36 Because wim precedes the situation noun, the situation noun represents the object of the enclosed sentence. 37 In this case, lan, land, is the object. 38 In English we sould place land before the enclosed sentence and add the word which. 39 Our final translation is the person sees the land which the parent has. 40 That's all for this lesson, thanks for watching!

V0tgil Lesson 6: Semantics

video 1 V0tgil contains almost no antonyms. 2 This is because the meaning of a word can be inverted with the descriptor v0t. 3 For example: v0tgwd, bad; v0tliv, dead; v0tfid, to lose; v0tlrn, to forget; v0tcin, outside of; v0tfor, against; v0tdey, night; and v0tper, offspring. 4 In fact, the name of the language used v0t in combination with gil, English. 5 V0tgil is the opposite of English because it has a lot fewer words and a much simpler orthography. 6 To form the past and future tenses, use the descriptors wuz and wil. 7 For example: nuywuznydlan, i needed land; and 9ytfimwilmeksumbil, the woman will construct a building. 8 These descriptors may be combined to form the future perfect and the past future. 9 For example: ywnwuzwilgetmun, you were going to get money; and 9ytperwilwuzvizc0n9ytlan the parent will have been on the land. 10 To make a yes or no question place the descriptor duz before the verb in a sentence. 11 For example ywnduzw0n"goftwr9ytbil", do you want to got toward the building? and 9ytprsduzcoyr0t, does the person enjoy art? 12 To form comparatives, use the descriptors mor and mos. 13 For example: morgwd, better; and mosdif, most different. 14 Note that the words mos and mot have different meanings! 15 Mos means to the greatest extent and mot means the majority of. 16 For example motprsw0nmun, most people want money. 17 The digits in v0tgil are zyr wun twn xry fwr fiv sik sev vot nin. 18 To form numbers greater than nine, place digits in order from least significant to most significant. 19 For example, zyrwun, ten; fivsikxry, three hundred and sixty five. 20 To express ordinal numerals, place the descriptor req before a number. 21 For example, reqtwn, second; and reqsev, seventh. 22 To express fractional amounts, place the descriptor fre before a number. 23 The result amount will be 1 divided by the given number. 24 For example, fretwn, one half; and fresev, one seventh. 25 That's all for this lesson, thanks for watching!