this is the official standard used by the Vötgil Society of the World to describe Jack Eisenmann's Vötgil in a more formal manner. Contents 0.0 Preface 1.0 Phonology 1.1 Phonotactics 1.2 Writing System 2.0 Basic Grammar 2.1 Noun Phrases 2.2 Word Morphology 2.3 Verb Phrases 2.4 Sentence Types 2.5 Descriptors 2.6 Situation Nouns 3.0 Introduction to the Vocabulary 3.1 Roots and their Antonyms 0.0 Preface Vötgil is a language created by Jack Eisenmann in 2013, and described by him in a set of videos and on his website. Vötgil is an analytic language with nominative-accusative alignment, SVO word order, and a combination of head-final and head-initial syntax. It has 22 consonants and 9 monophthong vowels, with several diphthongs. Its phonology distinguishes voice in both fricatives and stops, and its phonotactics are more complex than most world languages, but less complex than many european languages. 1.0 Phonology Vowels: front central back high y /i/ w /u/ i /ɪ/ o /o/ mid r /ɚ/ e /ɛ/ u /ʌ/ open a /æ/ 0/ö /ɑ/ Diphthongs/glides: uy /ʌj/ aw /æw/ er /ɛɹ/ or /oɹ/ ey /ɛj/ yw /ju/ yr /iɹ/ ör/ör /ɑɹ/ oy /oj/ wy /wi/ wr /uɹ/ Consonants: labial coronal dorsal m /m/ n /n/ q /ŋ/ p /p/ t /t/ k /k/ b /b/ d /d/ g /g/ f /f/ x /θ/ s /s/ c /ʃ/ h /h/ v /v/ 9/ð /ð/ z /z/ j /ʒ/ w /w/ r /ɹ/ y /j/ l /l/ 1.1 Phonotactics Vötgil has only three allowed syllable structures, CVC, CCV, and CVV. There are restrictions beyond this as well: - In practice there aren't any CVV words. - r can only end a CVC word if the vowel is e, y, w, o, or ö. - y and w can only end CVC words in the following dipthongs: ey, uy, oy, aw. - a, u, and i are forbidden from ending words. - Initial consonant clusters are limited to: Bl Br Fl Fr Gl Gr Kl Kr My Pl Pr Sk Sl Sm Sp St Sw Tc Dj Xr - No Vötgil words end in h, much as in english. It is therefore posited that final h may be pronounced as /x/ or /χ/, rather than /h/. - No Vötgil words begin with q. 1.2 Writing System Vötgil is usually seen written in the Latin alphabet, with two extra letters, which in this document are written as ö and ð, but may also be written as ö and 9. Vötgil also has a block based script, using a stack of 3 blocks, each of which can be one of 4 colors for each letter. Vötgil can be written with spaces between words, with no space and a capitalized first letter on each morpheme, or even in pure lowercase with no spaces, (this is surprisingly easy to read, because of vötgil's phonotactics). However, as discussed below, subclauses or situation nouns ought to be separated from their main clauses with quotes. This document will write Vötgil with non-breaking spaces between capitalized words. 2.0 Basic Grammar A sentence is written in the order subject, verb, object: NuyWuzYotSumBrdZis. "I ate some birds" The object may be omitted, but not the subject: NuyWuzYot "I ate." 2.1 Noun Phrases A descriptor comes before the word it describes. PwrWöt "pure water" Multiple descriptors can stack up. ÐytPwrWöt "the pure water" ÐisPwrWöt "this pure water" Multiple nouns in a row form a possessive or genitive relationship, or the first may act to describe the second. These senses can be disambiguated if necessary, by using the prepositions "vun" and "lyk". NuyWöt "my water" WötBrd "water-bird" ManBrd "a male bird" A preposition attaches the noun phrase before it to the noun phrase after it. SumBrdCinWöt "a bird in the water" Prepositions bind less tightly than adjectives and possessive nouns, but they are normally only right-associative. So if one says: SumBrdLwfWötVokCinLok "a bird to the left of the boat in the lake" This means the bird is not necessarily in the lake. Multiple prepositions can be stacked. To do this, the word "van" is used as a seperator. SumBrdLwfWötVokVanCinLok "a bird to the left of the boat, and in the lake" A preposition can also attach to a verb as seen in the section on verb phrases, or to a subclause also called a "situation noun". The specific meanings of prepositions are detailed in the vocabulary. 2.2 Word Morphology Nouns by default refer to either a singular or uncountable amount. Using the suffix "-Sis" or "-Zis" if the final phoneme is voiced, the plural can be refered to. Bok "block" BokSis "blocks" A verb can be turned into a noun in several ways. The most basic way is the suffix -niq. Such a word simply makes a noun of the action of the verb, with no particular subject or object: YotNiq "the action of eating" or "ingestion" By placing a noun after -niq, the verb can act as a descriptor: FwcYotNiqBrd : flesh eating bird If, instead, a word is needed to describe the subject of the verb, the -rer suffix is used: YotRer "an eater" The -rer suffix also applies to descriptors, creating a noun which is typically described by it: StwRer "a sticker" or "glue" Either of these can be given a subject by prefixing it as a possessive. FwcYotRer "meat eater" or "carnivore" FwcYotMiq "eating meat" or "carnivory" A word can be made to describe the object of a verb using the -rey suffix: NicRey "that which is interesting" or "an interest" A possessive then gives the subject. VötPerNicRey "that which is interesting to a child" "a childs interest" A descriptor or preposition can be formed into a noun describing its essence using the suffix "-Nis". WomNis "warmth" NyrNis "closeness" PwrNis "purity" A descriptor or verb can be turned into a descriptor, meaning that it was done to the word it describes: YotTid "eaten" FidDid "found" 2.3 Verb phrases A descriptor always goes before the verb it describes, and can stack. FunBrvFet "to fight bravely and humorously" Like with nouns, these grammatical descriptors come before other descriptors. WuzBrvFet "fought bravely" A preposition attaches a noun to a verb. Prepositions come directly after the verb they attach to, even before the direct object of the verb. NuySeyWixVötGilSto. "I tell a story in Vötgil" Only one preposition can directly attach to the verb, "van" is used as a combining word. NuySeyWixVötGilVanCinÐytKörSto. "I tell a story in vötgil in the car." 2.4 Sentence Types To form yes-no questions, add the descriptor "Duz" to the main verb: ÐytKatDuzYotSumBrd? "Does the cat eat a bird?" To form questions that ask for a noun, the descriptor "Wit" is used: ÐytKatYotWitBrd? "Which bird does the cat eat?" ÐytKatYotWitXiq? "What does the cat eat?" To form questions that ask for more general information, one way is again to use "Wit" with vague verbs: ÐytMokWitDwn?"What does the device do?" KatWitViz. "What is a cat?" To tell someone to do something, one uses the word "Ply" before the verb: YwnPlyMekMod. "You, please make metal." A more abrupt and impolite command is phrased as a statement. YwnMekMod. "You, make metal!" 2.5 Descriptors A descriptor is always placed before the word it modifies. Descriptors can be used to modify other descriptors. 2.6 Situation Nouns Grammatically, a subclause creates a new noun out of an entire sentence. This document will refer to subclauses as "situation nouns". Quotes should be used around any situation nouns. NuyNon"ÐytKatWuzYotSumBrd". "I know the cat ate a bird." Two special descriptors are used to extract a noun out of the inner sentence based on its role: "wis" for the subject and "wim" for the object. NuyLuvWis"ÐytKatWuzYotSumBrd". "I love the cat that ate a bird." NuyVötLuvWim"ÐytKatWuzYotÐytBrd". "I hate the bird that the cat ate." One may wonder what the difference is between using situation nouns versus a verb-derived noun with a possessive. The main difference is that the -rey and -rer suffixes imply that the action is typical of the noun formed. Wis"NamWuzYotBrd" "The animal that ate a bird (perhaps only once)." BrdYotNiqNam "A bird eating animal." 2.7 Numbers The number roots in Vötgil are the words: Zyr "0" Wun "1" Twn "2" Xry "3" Fwr "4" Fiv "5" Sik "6" Sev "7" Vot "8" Nin "9" Vötgil uses a base 10 number system with no special words for powers of ten. The digits are simply said in order from least to most significant, so: ZyrWun 10 WunSik 61 FivZyrWun 105 ZyrZyrZyrWun 1000 These numbers are used to describe the quantity of a noun they attach to. To instead describe the place a noun has in a sequence or ranking, use 'req' before the numbers. ReqWun "first" ReqFiv "fifth" The word 'Fre' can be used to create fractions; it separates the numerator from the denominator. The numerator can be omitted if it's 1. FreFiv 1/5 "one fifth" XryFreWunWun 3/11 "three elevenths" 3.0 Introduction to the Vocabulary The main vocabulary list, below, is sorted alphabetically, and only includes the monosyllabic vötgil root words, and their antonyms when modified by Vöt. 3.1 Roots and their Antonyms Ðan (P): than; relative to; with respect to; in comparison with. Ðat (D): that; a more distant specific one. Ðeq (V): to thank (for doing something) Ðis (D): this; a close specific one. Ðor (D): other; another; a different one. Ðyt (D): the; a specific one. Böd (N): body. <> VötBöd : mind, soul Böj (N): object; item. <> Vötboj : essence, abstraction Böl (N): ball; sphere. <> Vötböl : cube Bag (N): bag; purse. Bak (P): back to; toward the source or original location. <> Vötbak : forward from Baw (P): about; concerning. <> Vötbaw : unrelated to Bax (N): bath; basin; tub; sink. Bed (N): bed. Beg (V): to begin (something); start; initiate. <> Vötbeg : to stop, halt Bek (N): bacteria. <> Vötbek : antibiotic Ben (V): to bend (something); fold. <> Vötben : to straighten, stiffen Ber (D): barely; hardly at all. Bey (D): basic; simple; plain. <> Vötbey : complex, complicated Bil (N): building; a structure with a roof and walls. Biz (D): busy/busily; preoccupied. <> Vötbiz : free, unoccupied Blö (V): to blast (something); cause to explode; detonate; pop; burst. <> Vötblö : to crush; cause to implode; violently squeeze. Ble (D): blank; bare; bald. <> Vötble : coloured; decorated. Blw (D): blue. <> Vötblw : orange Bly (N): blood. Bok (N): block; brick; rectangular prism; a solid geometric object. <> Vötbok : mortar, glue Bon (N): bone. Bor (N): border; outline; frame. <> Vötbor : interior Brð (V): to breathe (something). Brc (V): to brush (hair); comb. Brd (N): bird. Bre (N): bread; roll. Brk (V): to break (something); snap; shatter; tear; rip. Brt (D): bright/brightly; light; shining. <> Vötbrt : dark, darkly, shading. Brv (D): brave; bold/boldly; courageous; confident. <> Vötbrv : afraid, cowardly, nervous Bud (N): butter. Bum (N): bump; lump; pile; mound. <> Vötbum : depression, ulcer, hole Bun (N): button; key; an input device which is pressed. <> Vötbun : dial, an input device you turn But (P): but; however; in contrast. Buy (P): by; happening by means of; with. Buz (N): buzz; hum; hiss. <> Vötbuz : tone, note Bwk (N): book. Bwn (P): between; among; within. <> Vötbwn : around, surrounding Byd (D): beautiful/beautifully; pretty. <> Vötbyd : ugly, unattrative Byf (P): before. <> Vötbyf : after Byk (P): because. Bym (V): to become (something). Byn (N): bean; legume. Byp (N): beep; blip; chirp; squeak. <> Vötbyp : boop; woof; growl Bys (V): to bounce (something); cause to bounce; reflect; deflect. Byt (V): to bite (something). Cöl (D): all; every. <> Vötcöl : none, no- Cön (P): on (something); on top of; supported by. <> Vötcön : off of Cöp (N): shop; store. Cak (V): to act (like something); perform (as something); behave as; pose as. Cas (V): to ask (a question). Caw (V): to shower (a substance); spray. Ceg (N): egg. <> Vötceg : sperm, semen. Cek (V): to shake (something). Cen (D): any; no particular instance of. <> Vötcen : particular, not just any. Cep (N): shape; form; design; layout; structure. Cif (P): if; happening under the condition that. Cik (N): chicken. Cin (P): in; inside of; within. <> Vötcin : out, outside of Cit (N): shit, vulgar form of vötfwd. Con (N): ocean; sea. <> Vötcon : continent Cot (V): to show; point; draw attention to; demonstrate; indicate; reveal. <> Vötcot : to hide, conceal Coy (V): to enjoy (something); like; prefer. <> Vötcoy : to dislike Crn (V): to earn (something); deserve; merit. Crt (N): shirt. Cup (D): up. <> Vötcup : down Cwd (D): should; appropriate; proper/properly; supposed to. Cwg (N): sugar. Cwp (N): shoe. Cwr (D): sure; certain/certainly. <> Vötcwr : unsure, uncertain Cwt (V): to shoot (ammunition); fire. Cyp (N): sheep; lamb. Dög (N): dog. Dök (N): document; essay; article. Döl (N): dollar. Döm (D): automatic/automatically; with no external intervention. <> Vötdom : manual, manually Dam (V): to damn, to curse. <> Vötdam : to bless Dan (V): to understand; comprehend. <> Vötdan : to be confused by Dav (V): to advertise (something). <> Vötdav : to warn against Def (V): to defend (something/someone); protect; guard; keep safe; preserve; conserve. Dej (N): danger; peril. <> Vötdej : safety, security Dem (V): to demand (something); request; order; command. Der (N): direction; way; path. Des (V): to describe (something); explain; report. Det (V): to identify (something); recognize; be familiar with. Dey (N): day; either 24 hours or the period of sunlight. <> Vötdey : night Dic (N): dish; plate. Dif (D): different; differing; contrasting. <> Vötdif : same, identical Dig (V): to dig (in something). <> Vötdig : bury Dim (N): atom. Dip (V): to depend (on something); be controlled or determined by; rely. Div (V): to divide (something); split; distribute. <> Vötdiv : to combine, unite Diz (N): disease; illness; sickness; germ. <> Vötdiz : health Dof (N): dough. Dor (N): door; gate. Drt (N): dirt; soil; ground. Dun (D): done; finished; complete/completely. <> Vötdun : unfinished, incomplete Dus (N): dust; powder. Duz (D): does; makes the sentence a question (optional; removes ambiguity). Dwn (V): to do (something); perform (an action); be involved with; participate in. <> Vötdwn : to undo Fön (D): often; frequent/frequently; occupational/occupationally; as a job; routinely; as the primary purpose; as a tool for. <> Vötfön : rarely, infrequently Fös (N): office. Fac (D): fancy; formal. <> VötFac : casual, casually Fam (N): family. Fas (D): fast; quick/quickly. <> VötFas : slow, slowly FeÐ (N): feather. Fen (N): friend. <> Vötfen : enemy, rival Fer (D): fair/fairly; just; right. <> Vötfer : unfair, unjust Fes (N): face (of a person or animal). Fet (V): to fight (someone); attack. Fic (N): fish. Fid (V): to find; come to know where something is; discover. <> VötFid : lose track of. Fig (N): flag. Fim (N): woman; female. Fiq (N): finger; toe. Fis (D): first; initial. <> VötFis : last, final, ultimate Fiv (D): five. Flö (D): flat; even; smooth. <> VötFlö : rough, uneven Flo (N): floor. <> VötFlo : ceiling Fly (N): flower. Fod (D): forward. <> VötFod : back, backward Fok (V): to focus (on something); pay attention to; concentrate on. <> VötFok : ignore Fom (N): foam; sponge; cake. Fon (N): phone; telephone. For (P): for; intended for; for the purpose of; so that; to. <> VötFor : against; intended to prevent Fot (N): foot; a unit of length. Fre (D): in a fraction; over; -th/-nd; precedes a number. Frn (N): furniture. Fro (N): friction. Frt (P): in front of. <> VötFrt : behind, in back of Frw (N): fruit. Fry (D): free/freely. <> VötFry : constrained Fuk (V): to fuck, vulgar. Ful (D): full; with no space remaining. <> VötFul : empty Fun (D): funny; humorous. <> VötFun : tragic, sad Fwc (N): meat; flesh; muscle. Fwd (N): food. <> VötFwd : crap, poop, polite term for 'cit' Fwl (N): fuel. <> VötFwl : oxidizer Fwr (D): four. Fwt (N): foot; a part of the body. Fyc (D): flashing; blinking; sparkling; glimmering. Fyl (V): to feel (an object or emotion); sense. Fyr (N): fire. Gör (N): garbage; waste; trash. <> VötGör : treasure Gal (N): gallon. Gat (D): exact; precise; specific; particular. <> VötGat : general Gem (N): game; competition; sport. Ger (D): angry/angrily; mad. <> VötGer : patient, placid Get (V): to get (something); receive. Gil (N): english; the language. <> VötGil : the Vötgil language Gis (N): glasses; used to aid vision. Gle (N): glass; a transparent material. Gof (V): to go (on a surface); travel; move one's self. Gon (N): organ (of the body). Gos (N): ghost; spirit. Grö (N): grass. Gre (D): gray/grey. Grp (N): group; category. Gry (V): to agree (with something or someone). <> Vötgry : to disagree Gul (D): guilty; shameful; sorry. <> Vötgul : innocent Guv (N): government; a system of law. <> Vötguv : anarchy Gwd (D): good/well. <> Vötgwd : bad Gyn (D): green. <> Vötgyn : red Gyt (V): to greet (someone); welcome. <> Vötgyt : to say farewell, goodbye Höl (D): hollow; with an empty cavity. <> Vöthöl : filled, without gaps Han (N): hand; a part of the body. Hap (D): happy/happily; glad. <> Vöthap : sad, sadly Hat (N): hat. Hav (V): to have; own; possess. Hed (N): head; a part of the body. Hen (D): happening; occurring. Hep (V): to help (to do something); assist in. <> Vöthep : to hinder Her (N): hair; fur; wool. Hev (D): heavy/heavily. <> Vöthev : light Hey (N): hello. <> Vöthey : goodbye Hit (V): to hit (something); beat; strike; crash into. <> Vöthit : to miss Hol (N): hole; pit. Hom (N): home. Hos (N): house. Hot (D): horizontal; perpendicular to gravity. Hrt (V): to hurt (something); damage; harm; injure. <> Vöthrt : to heal, repair Hwd (V): to hold (something); grab; physically support. Hwk (N): hook. Hyr (V): to hear. Jöb (N): job; occupation. Jöp (V): to drop (something); make fall. Jör (V): to draw (an image). Jak (D): actual; real; existing. <> Vötjak : fake, not real, nonexistent Jed (N): edge. Jek (P): except; not including. Jem (N): gem; crystal; jewel. Jer (N): air. Jor (P): or; either one. Jum (V): to jump (over something). Jus (V): to adjust (something). Jwr (P): during (something); not necessarily from the start to end of. Jws (N): juice. Köd (N): quality; trait. Köf (N): coffee. <> Vötkof : soporific, tranquilizer Köm (D): calm/calmly. Köp (V): to copy (something); make one more; duplicate; multiply. Kör (N): car. Köx (N): cloth; fabric. Köz (V): to cause (something); make happen; be the reason for; so; therefore. <> Vötköz : to prevent Kan (V): can; capable of; able to do (something). Kap (N): capsule; pellet; pill; pod. Kas (V): to carry (something); bring. Kat (N): cat. Kaw (N): cow; cattle. Keb (N): wire; cable. Kef (D): careful/carefully; alert; prudent; cautious; gentle/gently. <> Vötkef : careless Kel (V): to collect (something); gather. Ken (D): common/commonly; normal; usual; ordinary; regular; typical. <> Vötken : strange, uncommon, unusual, rare. Kep (N): concept; idea; thought; topic; subject. Ker (V): to care about (something); have concern for; worry about; respect. Kes (N): extent; degree; amount; quantity; used for uncountable items or actions. Ket (V): to connect (something); join; attach. <> Vötket : to disconnect, detach Kev (D): clever; smart; intelligent. <> Vötkev : stupid, dumb, idiotic Key (D): okay; decent/decently; acceptable. <> Vötkey : unacceptable, not okay Kin (V): to continue (something); keep doing. Kip (N): clip; clamp; used for attaching things. Kit (N): kind; type; sort. Klö (N): cloud; smoke. Klo (N): clothes; for wearing. Klr (D): clear/clearly; transparent. <> Vötklr : unclear Kly (D): clean. <> Votkly : unclean, dirty, messy Kod (N): code. Kol (V): to be equal to; be the same as; be identical to. <> Vötkol : to be totally different from. Kon (V): to count (something); find the quantity of. Kor (D): correct/correctly; right. <> Vötkor : wrong, incorrect Kot (N): coat; jacket; clothes for cold weather. Koy (V): to contain; include; encompass. Krö (P): across. Krn (N): corn. Kro (D): crazy/crazily; mad; wild. <> Vötkro : tame, docile, sane Krt (D): creative/creatively; innovative. <> Vötkrt : uncreative, conservative Krv (D): curved; round. Kry (V): to cry (speech); weep. Kuc (V): to control (something); drive; manipulate; rule. Kuf (D): comfortable. <> Vötkuf : uncomfortable Kul (N): color. Kup (N): cup; bucket; bowl. Kut (V): to cut (something); chop; shear; slice. Kuv (V): to cover (something); wrap. <> Vötkuv : to uncover, unwrap Kwd (D): could; the verb could happen; possible/possibly; may; might; perhaps; maybe. Kwp (N): company; business. Kwt (V): to compute (a result); calculate. Kyt (D): cute; adorable. <> Vötkyt : uncute, mature Lög (N): logic; reason; sense. <> Vötlög : illogic, unreason, insanity Lök (V): to lock (something). <> Vötlök : unlock Löm (D): almost; nearly. Löq (D): long; with a great length; tall. <> Vötlöq : short, brief Lör (D): large; big; great. <> Vötlör : small, little Lös (D): also; too; in addition. Löt (D): a lot of; many. <> Vötlöt : few, less Löv (N): law; rule; regulation. <> Vötlöv : chaos Lad (D): loud/loudly; noisy. <> Vötlad : quiet Laf (V): to laugh (at something). Lan (N): land; parcel; lot; country. Lat (N): outlet (for electricity or another resource); spout; dispenser; faucet. Leb (N): label; tag. Lef (D): left; leftward; toward the left. <> Vötlef : right Lek (N): electricity. Leq (N): language. Ler (N): lever. Let (V): to let (something occur); allow; permit. <> Vötlet : to forbid, deny Lev (N): level (of a game, building, etc); layer; shelf. Lic (N): liquid. Lim (N): limb; appendage; neck; arm; leg; branch. Lis (N): list. Lit (N): limit; constraint; the maximum permissible amount. <> Vötlit : infinity Liv (D): alive; living; lively. <> Vötliv : dead Lok (N): lake; pond. Lrn (V): to learn; study; research. <> Vötlrn : to forget Lum (N): lumber; wood. Luv (V): to love; adore. <> Vötluv : to hate Lwf (P): to the left of; on the left side of. <> Vötlwf : to the right of, on the right side of Lwp (N): loop; a shape which has no end. Lyf (N): leaf. Lyk (P): like; similar to; related to. <> Vötlyk : unlike, dissimilar to Lyn (N): line. Lyr (D): early. <> Vötlyr : late Lyt (N): light; either light itself or a light producing source. <> Vötlyt : shadow, shade Mök (V): to mark (something). <> Vötmök : to unmark, erase Möl (N): mollusk; soft-bellied creature; snail; octopus; squid. Möt (N): market; economy. Mad (N): matter. <> Vötmad : antimatter Mag (N): magnet. Man (N): man; male. Map (N): map. Max (N): math; mathematics. Med (N): medicine. Mej (V): to measure (something). Mek (V): to make (something); create; produce; cause to exist; build; construct. <> Vötmek : to unmake, destroy, delete Mel (N): mail; letter (to be sent as mail). Mem (N): member; an individual in a group. Mer (V): to marry (someone); become a spouse of. <> Vötmer : to divorce Met (N): material; substance. Mid (N): middle; centre. Mil (N): milk. Min (N): minute. Mis (N): mistake; accident. Mit (N): mint. Mod (N): metal. Mok (N): machine; device. Mon (D): main; chief; principal; primary. Mor (D): more; -er; to a greater extent; "long" becomes "longer". <> Vötmor : less Mos (D): -est; to the greatest extent; most; "long" becomes "longest". <> Vötmos : least Mot (D): most; the majority; almost all. <> Vötmos : minority of, few of, almost none Muc (N): mushroom; fungus. Mul (N): mile. Mun (N): money; currency. <> Vötmun : debt Mwl (N): mammal. Mwn (N): moon. Mwv (V): to move (something); cause to go; cause to travel. Mwz (N): music. Myn (V): to mean (something); signify; represent; imply. Myt (V): to meet (someone). Myw (V): to amuse (someone); entertain; be fun to. Nöb (N): knob; handle; for holding or for opening a door. Nöt (D): not; makes a word false; no (in response to a question). Nam (N): animal; creature. Nap (N): napkin; tissue. Nec (N): nature; phenomena not made by man. <> Vötnec : artifice, unnatural things, technology Ned (P): instead of; in the place of. Nem (N): name; title. Ner (N): energy. <> Vötner : enthalpy Nes (D): next; following. <> Vötnes : previous Net (N): net; mesh. Nev (N): environment; setting; surroundings; context; circumstance. Nic (V): to interest (someone); be interesting to; fascinate. Nif (N): information; data; signal. Nin (D): nine. Nol (D): only; alone; by himself/herself/itself/yourself/myself/themselves/ourselves; just; without anything else; without the assistance or company of other people; with no other action; with no other quality; in no other place. Non (V): to know; remember. Nor (D): north. <> Vötnor : south Nos (V): to notice; become aware of. Not (N): note; a reminder for someone. Noy (V): to annoy (someone); be annoying to; irritate. Nuf (D): enough; sufficient/sufficiently. <> Vötnuf : not enough, insufficient Num (N): number; quantity; amount; used for countable items. Nut (N): nut. Nuy (N): I/me; the speaker. Nuz (N): noise; sound. Nwb (D): new/newly; young. <> Vötnwb : old, traditional Nwz (N): news; tabloid. Nyd (V): to need; require; must. Nyr (P): near; close to; around; along; with a short distance. <> Vötnyr : far from, away from Nys (D): nice; kind. <> Vötnys : unkind, mean, unfriendly Pök (N): project. Pöl (P): parallel to; along. <> Vötpöl : perpendicular to Pön (N): horse; pony. Pöp (D): popular; cool; famous. <> Vötpöp : unpopular, lame, infamous Pör (N): part; piece; component. Pös (N): pasta. Pad (N): pattern. Pak (N): plastic. Pan (N): pants. Pat (N): planet. Pax (N): path; pathway; passage; passageway. Ped (N): party. Pek (N): picture; image. Pel (N): pencil. Pen (N): pen; for writing. Pep (N): paper. Per (N): parent; mother; father. <> Vötper : child Pig (N): pig. Pik (V): to pick (an option); choose; decide; select; vote for. Pil (N): pillow; cushion. Pin (N): pain; ache. Plö (V): to plan; scheme. Ple (V): to play (a game or instrument). Plo (N): plant. Plw (N): place; position; region; area; location; point. Ply (D): please; makes a verb imperative. Pod (D): proud/proudly. <> Vötpod : embarassed Pog (N): program (on a computer); application. Pol (N): police; security. Pon (V): to open (something). <> Vötpon : to close Por (V): to pour (a substance); spill. Pos (N): price; cost. Pot (N): point; grade; a unit of score. Poy (D): polite/politely; civilized. <> Vötpoy : impolite, rude Poz (N): prize; reward; award; bonus. Prö (D): probable/probably; likely. Pre (V): to predict (something); expect; infer; assume; estimate; judge; guess. Prl (D): purple; violet. <> Vötprl : yellow Pro (D): professional; experienced; expert; skilled. Prp (N): purpose; the reason for which something exists. Prs (N): person. Prt (V): to buy; purchase. <> Vötprt : to sell, vend Prw (N): problem; conflict; issue; drama; trouble; puzzle; challenge; flaw. Pry (V): to practice (a skill); exercise. Pub (D): public/publicly. <> Vötpub : private Put (N): potato. Pwc (V): to push; apply a force; press. <> Vötpwc : to pull, stretch Pwn (N): pound. Pwr (D): pure/purely. <> Vötpwr : impure Pwt (V): to put; place; add. <> Vötpwt : subtract, remove Pyt (N): pizza. Röd (D): ready; prepared. <> Vötröd : unready, unprepared Rök (N): rock; stone. Röt (N): art. Röx (N): arthropod; animal with exoskeleton; insect; crustacean; bug. Rad (N): order; permutation; organization. Rek (N): rectangle. Rel (N): rail; track; for holding or for trains. Ren (N): rain. Rep (V): to respond (with an action); reply; react. Req (D): ranked; having a place in an order; -st/-nd/-rd/-th; a number will follow; used for ordinal numerals. Res (V): to rest (on something); lie; take a break; relax. Ret (V): to relate (to something). Rid (V): to ride (a vehicle or animal). Rin (N): ornament; decoration. Rit (V): to write (text). <> Vötrit : to erase Riv (N): river; stream. Rob (N): rubber. Rod (N): road; street. Rog (V): to organize (something); sort; make neat. <> Vötrog : disorganize, mix, scramble, stir. Ron (N): range; span; length; interval. Rov (P): over; above; high. <> Vötrov : under, below, beneath Rox (N): earth; the planet. <> Vötrox : heaven Rub (V): to rub (a surface); drag on. Rug (N): rug; carpet; mat. Run (V): to run (on something). Rus (N): rice. Rut (N): reptile. Rwm (N): room; chamber. Rwv (V): to approve; confirm; praise; support. <> Vötrwv : to disapprove, scold Ryc (V): to reach (for something). Ryd (V): to read (text). Ryn (N): rodent. Rys (N): resource; nutrient; supply. Söf (D): soft. <> Vötsof : hard, tough, firm Sök (N): sock. Söl (N): solid; a state of matter. Sön (V): to stand (on a surface). Sör (N): stair; step. Sös (N): sauce. Söt (N): salt. Söv (V): to solve (something); repair; fix. Sac (N): sandwich. Sal (N): salad. San (N): sand. Sat (N): status; state; mode. Saw (D): sour. Seb (V): to celebrate (something). Sed (V): to send (something); submit. Sef (N): self; himself; herself; itself; ourselves; themselves; yourself; yourselves; causes the verb to be reflective; refers to the subject of the containing clause. Sek (N): ceramic; porcelain. Sel (N): cell; part of an organism. Sen (N): sentence. Set (N): system. Sev (D): seven. Sey (V): to say (something); speak; talk; tell. Sib (N): sibling; brother; sister. Sic (N): string; thread; lace; rope. Sik (D): six. Sil (D): cylinder. Sim (N): symbol; letter; digit; character. Sit (V): to sit (on a surface). Ske (V): to scare; frighten. Sko (N): screen; monitor; display. Skr (V): to scratch; scrape. Skw (N): school. Sky (N): sky. Sle (V): to slide (on something); glide; slip. Slw (N): slope; incline; ramp. Sly (V): to sleep (on something). <> Vötsly : to be awake Sme (N): smell; odor; scent. Sod (N): soda. Sop (N): soap. Soq (D): strong; fit; powerful. <> Vötsoq : weak Sot (N): science. Spe (D): special; original; unique. Spr (V): to spread (something); cause to spread. Spw (N): space; void; gap; vacuum; the absence of anything. Spy (D): spicy. Srf (N); surface; skin. Srk (N): circle. Srt (D): straight; extending or moving in one direction only; direct. Stö (N): start; beginning; the start of an object or span. <> Vötstö the end Ste (V): to stay (in a group); remain; continue to be; be in the rest. Sto (N): story; tale; rumor. Str (N): star; sun. Stw (V): to stick to (something); adhere to. Sty (D): still; still true; not moving. Sud (N): side; face (of an object). Sug (V): suggest (to do something); advise; direct; instruct; guide; lead. Sum (D): some; a; an; a particular instance of (previously unmentioned). Sup (V): to suppose (that something is true); have an opinion; think that; believe. Suy (N): sign. Swo (N): switch; for marking and breaking a circuit. Swp (N): soup. Swy (D): sweet. <> Vötswy : bitter. Syc (V): to see (something). Syd (N): seed. Sym (V): to seem like (something); appear to be; look like. Tak (V): to trick (someone); deceive; fool. Tan (N): town; village; city. Tas (N): task; job. Tcö (N): chocolate. Tce (V): to change (something); make different; modify. Tco (N): chair; couch. Tcr (V): to try (something); attempt; make an effort. <> Vöttcr : to avoid doing something Tcw (D): true/truly; in fact; did; indeed; yes (in response to a question). <> Vöttcw : false Tcy (N): cheese. Teb (N): table. Tec (N): texture; how something feels. Tem (N): time; period; moment; either a specific point or a span. Tep (V): to taper (to a point); gradually become narrow until converging; be sharp toward. Tes (V): to test; experiment (with something). Tey (V): to take (something); actively remove. <> Vöttey : to give, donate, provide, share Til (P): until. Tis (N): taste; flavor. Tok (V): to check; inspect; see the status of something. Tor (N): tree. Tos (V): to chase (someone/something); pursue. <> Vöttos : to flee, keep away from, avoid Tot (D): total/totally; entire/entirely; whole; full/fully; complete/completely. Toy (N): toy. Trg (D): together; with each other. <> Vöttrg : separately, separate Trn (V): to turn (something); rotate; change the orientation of. Trp (V): to capture; trap. <> Vöttrp : to release, let go Tuc (V): to touch; make contact with. Tum (N): tomato. Tuy (V): to tie (a string). <> Vöttuy : to untie Twc (D): too; excessive/excessively; to too much of an extent. Twl (N): tool. Twn (D): two. Twr (P): to; towards; in the direction of. <> Vöttwr : from, away from Tws (V): to trust; rely on; depend on. Tyc (V): to teach (something); educate. Tym (N): team. Völ (D): already. Vöt (D): anti; opposite; inverse in meaning. Vak (N): axle; used in a hinge. Val (N): value; worth. Van (P): and. Vat (P): at. Vaz (D): as; to a certain extent; so. Vej (N): vegetable. Vek (V): to excite (someone); make eager. <> Vötvek : to bore, be boring Vel (D): available; accessible. Veq (N): angle; degree measure; corner; joint; hinge. Ver (D): very; to a great extent; quite. <> Vötver : slightly, a little Vet (D): vertical; parallel to gravity. Vid (N): video; movie. Vim (D): important; serious; matter; relevant. Vis (D): viscous; thick; gooey. <> Vötvis : runny Vit (V): to visit; be a guest at; tour. Viz (V): to be (an instance/kind of). Vok (N): vehicle. Vot (D): eight. Vun (P): of; originating from; possessed by; related to. Vwd (D): would; conditional or hypothetical. Vwn (N): oven; stove; grill. Vyn (D): even; emphasizes something surprising or extreme. Wök (V): to walk (on something). Wöl (N): wall. Wön (V): to want; wish for; hope for; seek. Wöt (N): water. WeÐ (D): whether; expresses the truth of a statement. Web (N): web; internet. Wed (N): word. Weg (V): to wait (for something). Wek (V): to work (on something); do labor. Wel (P): while; during; for; for the duration of; from the start to the end of. Wer (V): to wear (an article). Wet (D): wet; damp. <> Vötwet : dry Wev (V): to wave (something); move back and forth; swing. Wey (N): way; method; means; manner; mode. Wic (N): wind; gust; breeze. Wid (N): window. Wil (D): will; going to; causes a verb to be in the future tense. Wim (D): which; whom; extracts the direct or prepositional object from a situation noun so that the object takes the place of the situation noun in the parent clause. Win (V): to win (a competition); be victorious in; succeed at. <> Vötwin : lose, fail at Wis (D): which; who; extracts the subject from a situation noun so that the subject takes the place of the situation noun in the parent clause. Wit (D): which; interrogative identity. Wix (P): with; along with; accompanied by. WoÐ (N): weather; climate. Wod (D): wide. Wol (N): world. Wom (D): warm; a little hot. <> Vötwom : cool Wor (N): war; battle; combat. <> Vötwor : peace Wun (D): one. Wuz (D): was; -ed; causes a verb to be in the past tense. Wyl (N): wheel. Wyn (D): on; active/actively; doing something. <> Vötwyn : inactive, off Wys (D): white. <> Vötwys : black Wyt (N): wheat. Xik (D): thick; large in the tertiary direction. <> Vötxik : thin Xiq (N): thing; the most general noun. Xok (V): to think (about something). Xro (V): to throw (something); toss. <> Vötxro : catch Xrw (P): through; in and out of. Xry (D): three. Yer (N): year. Yol (N): oil. Yos (D): east. <> Vötyos : west, western Yot (V): to eat (something); consume; drink. <> Vötyot : to piss, poop Ywl (D): useful; helpful. <> Vötywl : useless Ywn (N): you; the person being addressed. Ywt (N): unit. Ywz (V): to use. Zam (N): example; model. Zyp (D): easy/easily. <> Vötzyp : difficult, hard Zyr (D): zero.