generated html version of v0tgil.txtHOME

this is the official standard used by the Vötgil Society of the World to
describe Jack Eisenmann's Vötgil in a more formal manner.


0.0 Preface
1.0 Phonology
1.1 Phonotactics
1.2 Writing System
2.0 Basic Grammar
2.1 Noun Phrases
2.2 Word Morphology
2.3 Verb Phrases
2.4 Sentence Types
2.5 Descriptors
2.6 Situation Nouns
3.0 Introduction to the Vocabulary
3.1 Roots and their Antonyms

0.0 Preface

Vötgil is a language created by Jack Eisenmann in 2013, and described by
him in a set of videos and on his website.

Vötgil is an analytic language with nominative-accusative alignment, SVO word
order, and a combination of head-final and head-initial syntax. It has 22
consonants and 9 monophthong vowels, with several diphthongs. Its phonology
distinguishes voice in both fricatives and stops, and its phonotactics are
more complex than most world languages, but less complex than many european

1.0 Phonology

      front   central    back
high  y /i/              w /u/
          i /ɪ/          o /o/
mid            r /ɚ/
      e /ɛ/          u /ʌ/
open  a /æ/              0/ö /ɑ/

  uy /ʌj/   aw /æw/  er /ɛɹ/  or /oɹ/
  ey /ɛj/   yw /ju/  yr /iɹ/  ör/ör /ɑɹ/
  oy /oj/   wy /wi/  wr /uɹ/

  labial       coronal      dorsal
  m /m/         n /n/       q /ŋ/
  p /p/         t /t/       k /k/
  b /b/         d /d/       g /g/
  f /f/  x  /θ/ s /s/ c /ʃ/ h /h/
  v /v/ 9/ð /ð/ z /z/ j /ʒ/
  w /w/         r /ɹ/ y /j/
                l /l/

1.1 Phonotactics

Vötgil has only three allowed syllable structures, CVC, CCV, and CVV.
There are restrictions beyond this as well:
- In practice there aren't any CVV words.
- r can only end a CVC word if the vowel is e, y, w, o, or ö.
- y and w can only end CVC words in the following dipthongs:
  ey, uy, oy, aw.
- a, u, and i are forbidden from ending words.
- Initial consonant clusters are limited to:
  Bl Br Fl Fr Gl Gr Kl Kr My Pl Pr Sk Sl Sm Sp St Sw Tc Dj Xr
- No Vötgil words end in h, much as in english. It is therefore posited that
  final h may be pronounced as /x/ or /χ/, rather than /h/.
- No Vötgil words begin with q.

1.2 Writing System

Vötgil is usually seen written in the Latin alphabet, with two extra letters,
which in this document are written as ö and ð, but may also be written as
ö and 9. Vötgil also has a block based script, using a stack of 3 blocks,
each of which can be one of 4 colors for each letter.

Vötgil can be written with spaces between words, with no space and a
capitalized first letter on each morpheme, or even in pure lowercase
with no spaces, (this is surprisingly easy to read, because of vötgil's
phonotactics). However, as discussed below, subclauses or situation nouns
ought to be separated from their main clauses with quotes. This document
will write Vötgil with non-breaking spaces between capitalized words.

2.0 Basic Grammar

A sentence is written in the order subject, verb, object:
	NuyWuzYotSumBrdZis. "I ate some birds"

The object may be omitted, but not the subject:
	NuyWuzYot "I ate."

2.1 Noun Phrases

A descriptor comes before the word it describes.
	PwrWöt "pure water"

Multiple descriptors can stack up.
	ÐytPwrWöt "the pure water"
	ÐisPwrWöt "this pure water"

Multiple nouns in a row form a possessive or genitive relationship, or the
first may act to describe the second. These senses can be disambiguated if
necessary, by using the prepositions "vun" and	"lyk".
	NuyWöt "my water"
	WötBrd "water-bird"
	ManBrd "a male bird"

A preposition attaches the noun phrase before it to the noun phrase after it.
	SumBrdCinWöt "a bird in the water"

Prepositions bind less tightly than adjectives and possessive nouns, but
they are normally only right-associative. So if one says:
	SumBrdLwfWötVokCinLok "a bird to the left of the boat in the lake"
This means the bird is not necessarily in the lake.

Multiple prepositions can be stacked. To do this, the word "van" is used as
a seperator.
	SumBrdLwfWötVokVanCinLok "a bird to the left of the boat, and in
	the lake"

A preposition can also attach to a verb as seen in the section on verb phrases,
or to a subclause also called a "situation noun". The specific meanings of
prepositions are detailed in the vocabulary.

2.2 Word Morphology

Nouns by default refer to either a singular or uncountable amount. Using
the suffix "-Sis" or "-Zis" if the final phoneme is voiced, the plural can
be refered to.
	Bok	"block"
	BokSis	"blocks"

A verb can be turned into a noun in several ways. The most basic way is
the suffix -niq. Such a word simply makes a noun of the action of the verb,
with no particular subject or object:
	YotNiq "the action of eating" or "ingestion"

By placing a noun after -niq, the verb can act as a descriptor:
	FwcYotNiqBrd : flesh eating bird

If, instead, a word is needed to describe the subject of the verb, the -rer
suffix is used:
	YotRer "an eater"

The -rer suffix also applies to descriptors, creating a noun which is
typically described by it:
	StwRer "a sticker" or "glue"

Either of these can be given a subject by prefixing it as a possessive.
	FwcYotRer "meat eater" or "carnivore"
	FwcYotMiq "eating meat" or "carnivory"

A word can be made to describe the object of a verb using the -rey suffix:
	NicRey "that which is interesting" or "an interest"

A possessive then gives the subject.
	VötPerNicRey "that which is interesting to a child" "a childs

A descriptor or preposition can be formed into a noun describing its essence
using the suffix "-Nis".
	WomNis "warmth"
	NyrNis "closeness"
	PwrNis "purity"

A descriptor or verb can be turned into a descriptor, meaning that it was
done to the word it describes:
	YotTid "eaten"
	FidDid "found"

2.3 Verb phrases

A descriptor always goes before the verb it describes, and can stack.
	FunBrvFet "to fight bravely and humorously"

Like with nouns, these grammatical descriptors come before other descriptors.
	WuzBrvFet "fought bravely"

A preposition attaches a noun to a verb. Prepositions come directly after
the verb they attach to, even before the direct object of the verb.
	NuySeyWixVötGilSto. "I tell a story in Vötgil"

Only one preposition can directly attach to the verb, "van" is used as a
combining word.
	NuySeyWixVötGilVanCinÐytKörSto. "I tell a story in vötgil in
	the car."

2.4 Sentence Types

To form yes-no questions, add the descriptor "Duz" to the main verb:
	ÐytKatDuzYotSumBrd?	"Does the cat eat a bird?"

To form questions that ask for a noun, the descriptor "Wit" is used:
	ÐytKatYotWitBrd?	"Which bird does the cat eat?"
	ÐytKatYotWitXiq?	"What does the cat eat?"

To form questions that ask for more general information, one way is
again to use "Wit" with vague verbs:
	ÐytMokWitDwn?"What does the device do?"
	KatWitViz.	"What is a cat?"

To tell someone to do something, one uses the word "Ply" before the verb:
	YwnPlyMekMod.	"You, please make metal."

A more abrupt and impolite command is phrased as a statement.
	YwnMekMod.	"You, make metal!"

2.5 Descriptors

A descriptor is always placed before the word it modifies. Descriptors can
be used to modify other descriptors.

2.6 Situation Nouns

Grammatically, a subclause creates a new noun out of an entire sentence. This
document will refer to subclauses as "situation nouns". Quotes should be
used around any situation nouns.
	NuyNon"ÐytKatWuzYotSumBrd".	"I know the cat ate a bird."

Two special descriptors are used to extract a noun out of the inner sentence
based on its role: "wis" for the subject and "wim" for the object.
	NuyLuvWis"ÐytKatWuzYotSumBrd". "I love the cat that ate a bird."
	NuyVötLuvWim"ÐytKatWuzYotÐytBrd".	"I hate the bird that the
	cat ate."

One may wonder what the difference is between using situation nouns versus
a verb-derived noun with a possessive. The main difference is that the -rey
and -rer suffixes imply that the action is typical of the noun formed.
	Wis"NamWuzYotBrd"	"The animal that ate a bird (perhaps only
	BrdYotNiqNam	"A bird eating animal."

2.7 Numbers

The number roots in Vötgil are the words:
	Zyr "0"
	Wun "1"
	Twn "2"
	Xry "3"
	Fwr "4"
	Fiv "5"
	Sik "6"
	Sev "7"
	Vot "8"
	Nin "9"

Vötgil uses a base 10 number system with no special words for powers of
ten. The digits are simply said in order from least to most significant, so:
	ZyrWun 10
	WunSik 61
	FivZyrWun 105
	ZyrZyrZyrWun 1000

These numbers are used to describe the quantity of a noun they attach to. To
instead describe the place a noun has in a sequence or ranking, use 'req'
before the numbers.
	ReqWun "first"
	ReqFiv "fifth"

The word 'Fre' can be used to create fractions; it separates the numerator
from the denominator. The numerator can be omitted if it's 1.
	FreFiv 1/5 "one fifth"
	XryFreWunWun 3/11 "three elevenths"

3.0 Introduction to the Vocabulary

The main vocabulary list, below, is sorted alphabetically, and only includes
the monosyllabic vötgil root words, and their antonyms when modified by Vöt.

3.1 Roots and their Antonyms

Ðan (P): than; relative to; with respect to; in comparison with.
Ðat (D): that; a more distant specific one.
Ðeq (V): to thank (for doing something)
Ðis (D): this; a close specific one.
Ðor (D): other; another; a different one.
Ðyt (D): the; a specific one.
Böd (N): body. <> VötBöd : mind, soul
Böj (N): object; item. <> Vötboj : essence, abstraction
Böl (N): ball; sphere. <> Vötböl : cube
Bag (N): bag; purse.
Bak (P): back to; toward the source or original location. <> Vötbak :
forward from
Baw (P): about; concerning. <> Vötbaw : unrelated to
Bax (N): bath; basin; tub; sink.
Bed (N): bed.
Beg (V): to begin (something); start; initiate. <> Vötbeg : to stop, halt
Bek (N): bacteria. <> Vötbek : antibiotic
Ben (V): to bend (something); fold. <> Vötben : to straighten, stiffen
Ber (D): barely; hardly at all.
Bey (D): basic; simple; plain. <> Vötbey : complex, complicated
Bil (N): building; a structure with a roof and walls.
Biz (D): busy/busily; preoccupied. <> Vötbiz : free, unoccupied
Blö (V): to blast (something); cause to explode; detonate; pop; burst. <>
Vötblö : to crush; cause to implode; violently squeeze.
Ble (D): blank; bare; bald. <> Vötble : coloured; decorated.
Blw (D): blue. <> Vötblw : orange
Bly (N): blood.
Bok (N): block; brick; rectangular prism; a solid geometric object. <>
Vötbok : mortar, glue
Bon (N): bone.
Bor (N): border; outline; frame. <> Vötbor : interior
Brð (V): to breathe (something).
Brc (V): to brush (hair); comb.
Brd (N): bird.
Bre (N): bread; roll.
Brk (V): to break (something); snap; shatter; tear; rip.
Brt (D): bright/brightly; light; shining. <> Vötbrt : dark, darkly, shading.
Brv (D): brave; bold/boldly; courageous; confident. <> Vötbrv : afraid,
cowardly, nervous
Bud (N): butter.
Bum (N): bump; lump; pile; mound. <> Vötbum : depression, ulcer, hole
Bun (N): button; key; an input device which is pressed. <> Vötbun : dial,
an input device you turn
But (P): but; however; in contrast.
Buy (P): by; happening by means of; with.
Buz (N): buzz; hum; hiss. <> Vötbuz : tone, note
Bwk (N): book.
Bwn (P): between; among; within. <> Vötbwn : around, surrounding
Byd (D): beautiful/beautifully; pretty. <> Vötbyd : ugly, unattrative
Byf (P): before. <> Vötbyf : after
Byk (P): because.
Bym (V): to become (something).
Byn (N): bean; legume.
Byp (N): beep; blip; chirp; squeak. <> Vötbyp : boop; woof; growl
Bys (V): to bounce (something); cause to bounce; reflect; deflect.
Byt (V): to bite (something).
Cöl (D): all; every. <> Vötcöl : none, no-
Cön (P): on (something); on top of; supported by. <> Vötcön : off of
Cöp (N): shop; store.
Cak (V): to act (like something); perform (as something); behave as; pose as.
Cas (V): to ask (a question).
Caw (V): to shower (a substance); spray.
Ceg (N): egg. <> Vötceg : sperm, semen.
Cek (V): to shake (something).
Cen (D): any; no particular instance of. <> Vötcen : particular, not just any.
Cep (N): shape; form; design; layout; structure.
Cif (P): if; happening under the condition that.
Cik (N): chicken.
Cin (P): in; inside of; within. <> Vötcin : out, outside of
Cit (N): shit, vulgar form of vötfwd.
Con (N): ocean; sea. <> Vötcon : continent
Cot (V): to show; point; draw attention to; demonstrate; indicate; reveal. <>
Vötcot : to hide, conceal
Coy (V): to enjoy (something); like; prefer. <> Vötcoy : to dislike
Crn (V): to earn (something); deserve; merit.
Crt (N): shirt.
Cup (D): up. <> Vötcup : down
Cwd (D): should; appropriate; proper/properly; supposed to.
Cwg (N): sugar.
Cwp (N): shoe.
Cwr (D): sure; certain/certainly. <> Vötcwr : unsure, uncertain
Cwt (V): to shoot (ammunition); fire.
Cyp (N): sheep; lamb.
Dög (N): dog.
Dök (N): document; essay; article.
Döl (N): dollar.
Döm (D): automatic/automatically; with no external intervention. <> Vötdom :
manual, manually
Dam (V): to damn, to curse. <> Vötdam : to bless
Dan (V): to understand; comprehend. <> Vötdan : to be confused by
Dav (V): to advertise (something). <> Vötdav : to warn against
Def (V): to defend (something/someone); protect; guard; keep safe; preserve;
Dej (N): danger; peril. <> Vötdej : safety, security
Dem (V): to demand (something); request; order; command.
Der (N): direction; way; path.
Des (V): to describe (something); explain; report.
Det (V): to identify (something); recognize; be familiar with.
Dey (N): day; either 24 hours or the period of sunlight. <> Vötdey : night
Dic (N): dish; plate.
Dif (D): different; differing; contrasting. <> Vötdif : same, identical
Dig (V): to dig (in something). <> Vötdig : bury
Dim (N): atom.
Dip (V): to depend (on something); be controlled or determined by; rely.
Div (V): to divide (something); split; distribute. <> Vötdiv : to combine,
Diz (N): disease; illness; sickness; germ. <> Vötdiz : health
Dof (N): dough.
Dor (N): door; gate.
Drt (N): dirt; soil; ground.
Dun (D): done; finished; complete/completely. <> Vötdun : unfinished,
Dus (N): dust; powder.
Duz (D): does; makes the sentence a question (optional; removes ambiguity).
Dwn (V): to do (something); perform (an action); be involved with; participate
in. <> Vötdwn : to undo
Fön (D): often; frequent/frequently; occupational/occupationally; as a job;
routinely; as the primary purpose; as a tool for. <> Vötfön : rarely,
Fös (N): office.
Fac (D): fancy; formal. <> VötFac : casual, casually
Fam (N): family.
Fas (D): fast; quick/quickly. <> VötFas : slow, slowly
FeÐ (N): feather.
Fen (N): friend. <> Vötfen : enemy, rival
Fer (D): fair/fairly; just; right. <> Vötfer : unfair, unjust
Fes (N): face (of a person or animal).
Fet (V): to fight (someone); attack.
Fic (N): fish.
Fid (V): to find; come to know where something is; discover. <> VötFid :
lose track of.
Fig (N): flag.
Fim (N): woman; female.
Fiq (N): finger; toe.
Fis (D): first; initial. <> VötFis : last, final, ultimate
Fiv (D): five.
Flö (D): flat; even; smooth. <> VötFlö : rough, uneven
Flo (N): floor. <> VötFlo : ceiling
Fly (N): flower.
Fod (D): forward. <> VötFod : back, backward
Fok (V): to focus (on something); pay attention to; concentrate on. <>
VötFok : ignore
Fom (N): foam; sponge; cake.
Fon (N): phone; telephone.
For (P): for; intended for; for the purpose of; so that; to. <> VötFor :
against; intended to prevent
Fot (N): foot; a unit of length.
Fre (D): in a fraction; over; -th/-nd; precedes a number.
Frn (N): furniture.
Fro (N): friction.
Frt (P): in front of. <> VötFrt : behind, in back of
Frw (N): fruit.
Fry (D): free/freely. <> VötFry : constrained
Fuk (V): to fuck, vulgar.
Ful (D): full; with no space remaining. <> VötFul : empty
Fun (D): funny; humorous. <> VötFun : tragic, sad
Fwc (N): meat; flesh; muscle.
Fwd (N): food. <> VötFwd : crap, poop, polite term for 'cit'
Fwl (N): fuel. <> VötFwl : oxidizer
Fwr (D): four.
Fwt (N): foot; a part of the body.
Fyc (D): flashing; blinking; sparkling; glimmering.
Fyl (V): to feel (an object or emotion); sense.
Fyr (N): fire.
Gör (N): garbage; waste; trash. <> VötGör : treasure
Gal (N): gallon.
Gat (D): exact; precise; specific; particular. <> VötGat : general
Gem (N): game; competition; sport.
Ger (D): angry/angrily; mad. <> VötGer : patient, placid
Get (V): to get (something); receive.
Gil (N): english; the language. <> VötGil : the Vötgil language
Gis (N): glasses; used to aid vision.
Gle (N): glass; a transparent material.
Gof (V): to go (on a surface); travel; move one's self.
Gon (N): organ (of the body).
Gos (N): ghost; spirit.
Grö (N): grass.
Gre (D): gray/grey.
Grp (N): group; category.
Gry (V): to agree (with something or someone). <> Vötgry : to disagree
Gul (D): guilty; shameful; sorry. <> Vötgul : innocent
Guv (N): government; a system of law. <> Vötguv : anarchy
Gwd (D): good/well. <> Vötgwd : bad
Gyn (D): green. <> Vötgyn : red
Gyt (V): to greet (someone); welcome. <> Vötgyt : to say farewell, goodbye
Höl (D): hollow; with an empty cavity. <> Vöthöl : filled, without gaps
Han (N): hand; a part of the body.
Hap (D): happy/happily; glad. <> Vöthap : sad, sadly
Hat (N): hat.
Hav (V): to have; own; possess.
Hed (N): head; a part of the body.
Hen (D): happening; occurring.
Hep (V): to help (to do something); assist in. <> Vöthep : to hinder
Her (N): hair; fur; wool.
Hev (D): heavy/heavily. <> Vöthev : light
Hey (N): hello. <> Vöthey : goodbye
Hit (V): to hit (something); beat; strike; crash into. <> Vöthit : to miss
Hol (N): hole; pit.
Hom (N): home.
Hos (N): house.
Hot (D): horizontal; perpendicular to gravity.
Hrt (V): to hurt (something); damage; harm; injure. <> Vöthrt : to heal,
Hwd (V): to hold (something); grab; physically support.
Hwk (N): hook.
Hyr (V): to hear.
Jöb (N): job; occupation.
Jöp (V): to drop (something); make fall.
Jör (V): to draw (an image).
Jak (D): actual; real; existing. <> Vötjak : fake, not real, nonexistent
Jed (N): edge.
Jek (P): except; not including.
Jem (N): gem; crystal; jewel.
Jer (N): air.
Jor (P): or; either one.
Jum (V): to jump (over something).
Jus (V): to adjust (something).
Jwr (P): during (something); not necessarily from the start to end of.
Jws (N): juice.
Köd (N): quality; trait.
Köf (N): coffee. <> Vötkof : soporific, tranquilizer
Köm (D): calm/calmly.
Köp (V): to copy (something); make one more; duplicate; multiply.
Kör (N): car.
Köx (N): cloth; fabric.
Köz (V): to cause (something); make happen; be the reason for; so;
therefore. <> Vötköz : to prevent
Kan (V): can; capable of; able to do (something).
Kap (N): capsule; pellet; pill; pod.
Kas (V): to carry (something); bring.
Kat (N): cat.
Kaw (N): cow; cattle.
Keb (N): wire; cable.
Kef (D): careful/carefully; alert; prudent; cautious; gentle/gently. <>
Vötkef : careless
Kel (V): to collect (something); gather.
Ken (D): common/commonly; normal; usual; ordinary; regular; typical. <>
Vötken : strange, uncommon, unusual, rare.
Kep (N): concept; idea; thought; topic; subject.
Ker (V): to care about (something); have concern for; worry about; respect.
Kes (N): extent; degree; amount; quantity; used for uncountable items
or actions.
Ket (V): to connect (something); join; attach. <> Vötket : to disconnect,
Kev (D): clever; smart; intelligent. <> Vötkev : stupid, dumb, idiotic
Key (D): okay; decent/decently; acceptable. <> Vötkey : unacceptable, not okay
Kin (V): to continue (something); keep doing.
Kip (N): clip; clamp; used for attaching things.
Kit (N): kind; type; sort.
Klö (N): cloud; smoke.
Klo (N): clothes; for wearing.
Klr (D): clear/clearly; transparent. <> Vötklr : unclear
Kly (D): clean. <> Votkly : unclean, dirty, messy
Kod (N): code.
Kol (V): to be equal to; be the same as; be identical to. <> Vötkol :
to be totally different from.
Kon (V): to count (something); find the quantity of.
Kor (D): correct/correctly; right. <> Vötkor : wrong, incorrect
Kot (N): coat; jacket; clothes for cold weather.
Koy (V): to contain; include; encompass.
Krö (P): across.
Krn (N): corn.
Kro (D): crazy/crazily; mad; wild. <> Vötkro : tame, docile, sane
Krt (D): creative/creatively; innovative. <> Vötkrt : uncreative, conservative
Krv (D): curved; round.
Kry (V): to cry (speech); weep.
Kuc (V): to control (something); drive; manipulate; rule.
Kuf (D): comfortable. <> Vötkuf : uncomfortable
Kul (N): color.
Kup (N): cup; bucket; bowl.
Kut (V): to cut (something); chop; shear; slice.
Kuv (V): to cover (something); wrap. <> Vötkuv : to uncover, unwrap
Kwd (D): could; the verb could happen; possible/possibly; may; might;
perhaps; maybe.
Kwp (N): company; business.
Kwt (V): to compute (a result); calculate.
Kyt (D): cute; adorable. <> Vötkyt : uncute, mature
Lög (N): logic; reason; sense. <> Vötlög : illogic, unreason, insanity
Lök (V): to lock (something). <> Vötlök : unlock
Löm (D): almost; nearly.
Löq (D): long; with a great length; tall. <> Vötlöq : short, brief
Lör (D): large; big; great. <> Vötlör : small, little
Lös (D): also; too; in addition.
Löt (D): a lot of; many. <> Vötlöt : few, less
Löv (N): law; rule; regulation. <> Vötlöv : chaos
Lad (D): loud/loudly; noisy. <> Vötlad : quiet
Laf (V): to laugh (at something).
Lan (N): land; parcel; lot; country.
Lat (N): outlet (for electricity or another resource); spout; dispenser;
Leb (N): label; tag.
Lef (D): left; leftward; toward the left. <> Vötlef : right
Lek (N): electricity.
Leq (N): language.
Ler (N): lever.
Let (V): to let (something occur); allow; permit. <> Vötlet : to forbid, deny
Lev (N): level (of a game, building, etc); layer; shelf.
Lic (N): liquid.
Lim (N): limb; appendage; neck; arm; leg; branch.
Lis (N): list.
Lit (N): limit; constraint; the maximum permissible amount. <> Vötlit :
Liv (D): alive; living; lively. <> Vötliv : dead
Lok (N): lake; pond.
Lrn (V): to learn; study; research. <> Vötlrn : to forget
Lum (N): lumber; wood.
Luv (V): to love; adore. <> Vötluv : to hate
Lwf (P): to the left of; on the left side of. <> Vötlwf : to the right of,
on the right side of
Lwp (N): loop; a shape which has no end.
Lyf (N): leaf.
Lyk (P): like; similar to; related to. <> Vötlyk : unlike, dissimilar to
Lyn (N): line.
Lyr (D): early. <> Vötlyr : late
Lyt (N): light; either light itself or a light producing source. <> Vötlyt :
shadow, shade
Mök (V): to mark (something). <> Vötmök : to unmark, erase
Möl (N): mollusk; soft-bellied creature; snail; octopus; squid.
Möt (N): market; economy.
Mad (N): matter. <> Vötmad : antimatter
Mag (N): magnet.
Man (N): man; male.
Map (N): map.
Max (N): math; mathematics.
Med (N): medicine.
Mej (V): to measure (something).
Mek (V): to make (something); create; produce; cause to exist; build;
construct. <> Vötmek : to unmake, destroy, delete
Mel (N): mail; letter (to be sent as mail).
Mem (N): member; an individual in a group.
Mer (V): to marry (someone); become a spouse of. <> Vötmer : to divorce
Met (N): material; substance.
Mid (N): middle; centre.
Mil (N): milk.
Min (N): minute.
Mis (N): mistake; accident.
Mit (N): mint.
Mod (N): metal.
Mok (N): machine; device.
Mon (D): main; chief; principal; primary.
Mor (D): more; -er; to a greater extent; "long" becomes "longer". <> Vötmor
: less
Mos (D): -est; to the greatest extent; most; "long" becomes "longest". <>
Vötmos : least
Mot (D): most; the majority; almost all. <> Vötmos : minority of, few of,
almost none
Muc (N): mushroom; fungus.
Mul (N): mile.
Mun (N): money; currency. <> Vötmun : debt
Mwl (N): mammal.
Mwn (N): moon.
Mwv (V): to move (something); cause to go; cause to travel.
Mwz (N): music.
Myn (V): to mean (something); signify; represent; imply.
Myt (V): to meet (someone).
Myw (V): to amuse (someone); entertain; be fun to.
Nöb (N): knob; handle; for holding or for opening a door.
Nöt (D): not; makes a word false; no (in response to a question).
Nam (N): animal; creature.
Nap (N): napkin; tissue.
Nec (N): nature; phenomena not made by man. <> Vötnec : artifice, unnatural
things, technology
Ned (P): instead of; in the place of.
Nem (N): name; title.
Ner (N): energy. <> Vötner : enthalpy
Nes (D): next; following. <> Vötnes : previous
Net (N): net; mesh.
Nev (N): environment; setting; surroundings; context; circumstance.
Nic (V): to interest (someone); be interesting to; fascinate.
Nif (N): information; data; signal.
Nin (D): nine.
Nol (D): only; alone; by
himself/herself/itself/yourself/myself/themselves/ourselves; just; without
anything else; without the assistance or company of other people; with no
other action; with no other quality; in no other place.
Non (V): to know; remember.
Nor (D): north. <> Vötnor : south
Nos (V): to notice; become aware of.
Not (N): note; a reminder for someone.
Noy (V): to annoy (someone); be annoying to; irritate.
Nuf (D): enough; sufficient/sufficiently. <> Vötnuf : not enough, insufficient
Num (N): number; quantity; amount; used for countable items.
Nut (N): nut.
Nuy (N): I/me; the speaker.
Nuz (N): noise; sound.
Nwb (D): new/newly; young. <> Vötnwb : old, traditional
Nwz (N): news; tabloid.
Nyd (V): to need; require; must.
Nyr (P): near; close to; around; along; with a short distance. <> Vötnyr :
far from, away from
Nys (D): nice; kind. <> Vötnys : unkind, mean, unfriendly
Pök (N): project.
Pöl (P): parallel to; along. <> Vötpöl : perpendicular to
Pön (N): horse; pony.
Pöp (D): popular; cool; famous. <> Vötpöp : unpopular, lame, infamous
Pör (N): part; piece; component.
Pös (N): pasta.
Pad (N): pattern.
Pak (N): plastic.
Pan (N): pants.
Pat (N): planet.
Pax (N): path; pathway; passage; passageway.
Ped (N): party.
Pek (N): picture; image.
Pel (N): pencil.
Pen (N): pen; for writing.
Pep (N): paper.
Per (N): parent; mother; father. <> Vötper : child
Pig (N): pig.
Pik (V): to pick (an option); choose; decide; select; vote for.
Pil (N): pillow; cushion.
Pin (N): pain; ache.
Plö (V): to plan; scheme.
Ple (V): to play (a game or instrument).
Plo (N): plant.
Plw (N): place; position; region; area; location; point.
Ply (D): please; makes a verb imperative.
Pod (D): proud/proudly. <> Vötpod : embarassed
Pog (N): program (on a computer); application.
Pol (N): police; security.
Pon (V): to open (something). <> Vötpon : to close
Por (V): to pour (a substance); spill.
Pos (N): price; cost.
Pot (N): point; grade; a unit of score.
Poy (D): polite/politely; civilized. <> Vötpoy : impolite, rude
Poz (N): prize; reward; award; bonus.
Prö (D): probable/probably; likely.
Pre (V): to predict (something); expect; infer; assume; estimate; judge; guess.
Prl (D): purple; violet. <> Vötprl : yellow
Pro (D): professional; experienced; expert; skilled.
Prp (N): purpose; the reason for which something exists.
Prs (N): person.
Prt (V): to buy; purchase. <> Vötprt : to sell, vend
Prw (N): problem; conflict; issue; drama; trouble; puzzle; challenge; flaw.
Pry (V): to practice (a skill); exercise.
Pub (D): public/publicly. <> Vötpub : private
Put (N): potato.
Pwc (V): to push; apply a force; press. <> Vötpwc : to pull, stretch
Pwn (N): pound.
Pwr (D): pure/purely. <> Vötpwr : impure
Pwt (V): to put; place; add. <> Vötpwt : subtract, remove
Pyt (N): pizza.
Röd (D): ready; prepared. <> Vötröd : unready, unprepared
Rök (N): rock; stone.
Röt (N): art.
Röx (N): arthropod; animal with exoskeleton; insect; crustacean; bug.
Rad (N): order; permutation; organization.
Rek (N): rectangle.
Rel (N): rail; track; for holding or for trains.
Ren (N): rain.
Rep (V): to respond (with an action); reply; react.
Req (D): ranked; having a place in an order; -st/-nd/-rd/-th; a number will
follow; used for ordinal numerals.
Res (V): to rest (on something); lie; take a break; relax.
Ret (V): to relate (to something).
Rid (V): to ride (a vehicle or animal).
Rin (N): ornament; decoration.
Rit (V): to write (text). <> Vötrit : to erase
Riv (N): river; stream.
Rob (N): rubber.
Rod (N): road; street.
Rog (V): to organize (something); sort; make neat. <> Vötrog : disorganize,
mix, scramble, stir.
Ron (N): range; span; length; interval.
Rov (P): over; above; high. <> Vötrov : under, below, beneath
Rox (N): earth; the planet. <> Vötrox : heaven
Rub (V): to rub (a surface); drag on.
Rug (N): rug; carpet; mat.
Run (V): to run (on something).
Rus (N): rice.
Rut (N): reptile.
Rwm (N): room; chamber.
Rwv (V): to approve; confirm; praise; support. <> Vötrwv : to disapprove,
Ryc (V): to reach (for something).
Ryd (V): to read (text).
Ryn (N): rodent.
Rys (N): resource; nutrient; supply.
Söf (D): soft. <> Vötsof : hard, tough, firm
Sök (N): sock.
Söl (N): solid; a state of matter.
Sön (V): to stand (on a surface).
Sör (N): stair; step.
Sös (N): sauce.
Söt (N): salt.
Söv (V): to solve (something); repair; fix.
Sac (N): sandwich.
Sal (N): salad.
San (N): sand.
Sat (N): status; state; mode.
Saw (D): sour.
Seb (V): to celebrate (something).
Sed (V): to send (something); submit.
Sef (N): self; himself; herself; itself; ourselves; themselves; yourself;
yourselves; causes the verb to be reflective; refers to the subject of the
containing clause.
Sek (N): ceramic; porcelain.
Sel (N): cell; part of an organism.
Sen (N): sentence.
Set (N): system.
Sev (D): seven.
Sey (V): to say (something); speak; talk; tell.
Sib (N): sibling; brother; sister.
Sic (N): string; thread; lace; rope.
Sik (D): six.
Sil (D): cylinder.
Sim (N): symbol; letter; digit; character.
Sit (V): to sit (on a surface).
Ske (V): to scare; frighten.
Sko (N): screen; monitor; display.
Skr (V): to scratch; scrape.
Skw (N): school.
Sky (N): sky.
Sle (V): to slide (on something); glide; slip.
Slw (N): slope; incline; ramp.
Sly (V): to sleep (on something). <> Vötsly : to be awake
Sme (N): smell; odor; scent.
Sod (N): soda.
Sop (N): soap.
Soq (D): strong; fit; powerful. <> Vötsoq : weak
Sot (N): science.
Spe (D): special; original; unique.
Spr (V): to spread (something); cause to spread.
Spw (N): space; void; gap; vacuum; the absence of anything.
Spy (D): spicy.
Srf (N); surface; skin.
Srk (N): circle.
Srt (D): straight; extending or moving in one direction only; direct.
Stö (N): start; beginning; the start of an object or span. <> Vötstö the end
Ste (V): to stay (in a group); remain; continue to be; be in the rest.
Sto (N): story; tale; rumor.
Str (N): star; sun.
Stw (V): to stick to (something); adhere to.
Sty (D): still; still true; not moving.
Sud (N): side; face (of an object).
Sug (V): suggest (to do something); advise; direct; instruct; guide; lead.
Sum (D): some; a; an; a particular instance of (previously unmentioned).
Sup (V): to suppose (that something is true); have an opinion; think that;
Suy (N): sign.
Swo (N): switch; for marking and breaking a circuit.
Swp (N): soup.
Swy (D): sweet. <> Vötswy : bitter.
Syc (V): to see (something).
Syd (N): seed.
Sym (V): to seem like (something); appear to be; look like.
Tak (V): to trick (someone); deceive; fool.
Tan (N): town; village; city.
Tas (N): task; job.
Tcö (N): chocolate.
Tce (V): to change (something); make different; modify.
Tco (N): chair; couch.
Tcr (V): to try (something); attempt; make an effort. <> Vöttcr : to avoid
doing something
Tcw (D): true/truly; in fact; did; indeed; yes (in response to a question). <>
Vöttcw : false
Tcy (N): cheese.
Teb (N): table.
Tec (N): texture; how something feels.
Tem (N): time; period; moment; either a specific point or a span.
Tep (V): to taper (to a point); gradually become narrow until converging;
be sharp toward.
Tes (V): to test; experiment (with something).
Tey (V): to take (something); actively remove. <> Vöttey : to give, donate,
provide, share
Til (P): until.
Tis (N): taste; flavor.
Tok (V): to check; inspect; see the status of something.
Tor (N): tree.
Tos (V): to chase (someone/something); pursue. <> Vöttos : to flee, keep
away from, avoid
Tot (D): total/totally; entire/entirely; whole; full/fully;
Toy (N): toy.
Trg (D): together; with each other. <> Vöttrg : separately, separate
Trn (V): to turn (something); rotate; change the orientation of.
Trp (V): to capture; trap. <> Vöttrp : to release, let go
Tuc (V): to touch; make contact with.
Tum (N): tomato.
Tuy (V): to tie (a string). <> Vöttuy : to untie
Twc (D): too; excessive/excessively; to too much of an extent.
Twl (N): tool.
Twn (D): two.
Twr (P): to; towards; in the direction of. <> Vöttwr : from, away from
Tws (V): to trust; rely on; depend on.
Tyc (V): to teach (something); educate.
Tym (N): team.
Völ (D): already.
Vöt (D): anti; opposite; inverse in meaning.
Vak (N): axle; used in a hinge.
Val (N): value; worth.
Van (P): and.
Vat (P): at.
Vaz (D): as; to a certain extent; so.
Vej (N): vegetable.
Vek (V): to excite (someone); make eager. <> Vötvek : to bore, be boring
Vel (D): available; accessible.
Veq (N): angle; degree measure; corner; joint; hinge.
Ver (D): very; to a great extent; quite. <> Vötver : slightly, a little
Vet (D): vertical; parallel to gravity.
Vid (N): video; movie.
Vim (D): important; serious; matter; relevant.
Vis (D): viscous; thick; gooey. <> Vötvis : runny
Vit (V): to visit; be a guest at; tour.
Viz (V): to be (an instance/kind of).
Vok (N): vehicle.
Vot (D): eight.
Vun (P): of; originating from; possessed by; related to.
Vwd (D): would; conditional or hypothetical.
Vwn (N): oven; stove; grill.
Vyn (D): even; emphasizes something surprising or extreme.
Wök (V): to walk (on something).
Wöl (N): wall.
Wön (V): to want; wish for; hope for; seek.
Wöt (N): water.
WeÐ (D): whether; expresses the truth of a statement.
Web (N): web; internet.
Wed (N): word.
Weg (V): to wait (for something).
Wek (V): to work (on something); do labor.
Wel (P): while; during; for; for the duration of; from the start to the end of.
Wer (V): to wear (an article).
Wet (D): wet; damp. <> Vötwet : dry
Wev (V): to wave (something); move back and forth; swing.
Wey (N): way; method; means; manner; mode.
Wic (N): wind; gust; breeze.
Wid (N): window.
Wil (D): will; going to; causes a verb to be in the future tense.
Wim (D): which; whom; extracts the direct or prepositional object from a
situation noun so that the object takes the place of the situation noun in
the parent clause.
Win (V): to win (a competition); be victorious in; succeed at. <> Vötwin :
lose, fail at
Wis (D): which; who; extracts the subject from a situation noun so that the
subject takes the place of the situation noun in the parent clause.
Wit (D): which; interrogative identity.
Wix (P): with; along with; accompanied by.
WoÐ (N): weather; climate.
Wod (D): wide.
Wol (N): world.
Wom (D): warm; a little hot. <> Vötwom : cool
Wor (N): war; battle; combat. <> Vötwor : peace
Wun (D): one.
Wuz (D): was; -ed; causes a verb to be in the past tense.
Wyl (N): wheel.
Wyn (D): on; active/actively; doing something. <> Vötwyn : inactive, off
Wys (D): white. <> Vötwys : black
Wyt (N): wheat.
Xik (D): thick; large in the tertiary direction. <> Vötxik : thin
Xiq (N): thing; the most general noun.
Xok (V): to think (about something).
Xro (V): to throw (something); toss. <> Vötxro : catch
Xrw (P): through; in and out of.
Xry (D): three.
Yer (N): year.
Yol (N): oil.
Yos (D): east. <> Vötyos : west, western
Yot (V): to eat (something); consume; drink. <> Vötyot : to piss, poop
Ywl (D): useful; helpful. <> Vötywl : useless
Ywn (N): you; the person being addressed.
Ywt (N): unit.
Ywz (V): to use.
Zam (N): example; model.
Zyp (D): easy/easily. <> Vötzyp : difficult, hard
Zyr (D): zero.