These pages have been modified from their original form. They have been formatted to fit a tolerant and diverse society.

I have decided, despite many qualms, to copy over Andrew Nowicki's pages about the logical language ygyde to my own website. Contained in those pages were some comments, "mnemonics", and vocabulary derivations I object to, and for that reason these pages are modified from their original form. I assure you that nothing of value was lost in expunging them.

I decided, since it wasn't really worth it, not to include any of the dictionary, aside from the root words in this main page.

Comments by me are in this colour for clarity. -- Oren Watson

updated May 7, 2020

English language is not the best international auxiliary language because it is too ambiguous and too difficult to learn. For example, there are 56 meanings of the verb set, 11 meanings of the adjective set, and 47 meanings of the noun set, not counting subtle variations of these meanings. Best examples of English language flaws: There is no egg in the eggplant, no ham in the hamburger, no pine or apple in the pineapple. English muffins were not invented in England. French fries were not invented in France. Boxing rings are square. Guinea pig is neither from Guinea nor is it a pig. Trolling and trawling are different methods of fishing, but they are indistinguishable in spoken English. If a vegetarian eats vegetables, what does a humanitarian eat?

The English language is divided into many dialects. For example, a filling station that sells fuel for motor vehicles is called gas station in the United States and most of Canada. In some regions of Canada it is called gas bar. In the Commonwealth it is called petrol station. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, and South Africa it is called garage. In Australia it is called service station. In India it is called petrol bunk.

Ygyde is an oligosynthetic language that crams record number of different meanings into two letters long morphemes. These morphemes are the building blocks of Ygyde. The key concept that defines Ygyde is its prefix table. Ygyde is a constructed language (conlang) and a superb international auxiliary language because it is easy to pronounce (no consonant clusters and easy to pronounce version called Long Ygyde ), easy to understand (two consecutive vowels = the end of one word and the beginning of the next word), and very easy to learn (lots of compound words and lots of morphemes derived from 90 adjectives).

Names of letters and scientific constants are 2 letters long. Names of variables are 4 letters long compound words. Proper nouns are 6 letters long compound words except for names of people and some geographic names, which are 8 letters long. Names of common plants and animals are ordinary compound words. Precise biological names of multicellular plants and animals are 10 letters long. Precise biological names of monocellular plants and animals are 12 letters long.

All other words have odd number of letters. They begin with a vowel which is followed by a consonant, which is followed by a vowel, and so on. Functional vowels are prepositions made of one letter. Numbers, colors, pronouns, common adjectives, common nouns, conjunctions, and the rest of prepositions are 3 letters long. All other words are either 5 or 7 letters long. They are compound words coined by combining a vowel prefix with two or three morphemes. Examples of Ygyde compound words:
aniga (corrupt) = a (adjective) + ni (secret) + ga (money)
ofyby (leavened bread) = o (noun) + fy (foam) + by (food)
igugo (to vaporize) = i (verb) + gu (liquid) + go (gas).

Ygyde compound words are very easy to memorize. To verify this fact, randomly select a dozen compound words from Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary. Spend five minutes memorizing their English roots; for example: memorize "bread" as "foam food," "abacus" as "old number tool," and so on. Spend five minutes memorizing the same words from a language you do not know, for example, Polish language. (In Polish language "bread" is "chleb" and "abacus" is "liczydlo.") Next day find out how many Ygyde words and Polish words you have memorized.

Foreign words follow one of the following Ygyde words: hupi, ugi, huki, uwo, uwi, hufo, uzo, uzu. These words are necessary to make sure that the foreign words are not interpreted as new Ygyde words. For example, the word bikini means "proper noun optical massive path" in Ygyde.

Ygyde is the Linux of conlangs. It is not protected by copyright laws, so you are free to modify this web page and post it on your web site. That is what I have done. --Oren The only dictionary of the compound words is the Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary. Ygyde is fun to play with. You can either pick up an English word and try to figure out its Ygyde equivalent, or you can coin a new Ygyde word and try to guess its meaning. If you are serious about learning Ygyde, start with an (unfinished) primer. Neither the dictionary nor the primer are available here, as the primer is essentially empty, and the dictionary contained the bulk of racist, sexist, and otherwise objectionable material and I felt no desire to try to fix it. --Oren

Andrew Nowicki invented all the tables of the Ygyde language except preposition table. Patrick Hassel-Zein invented most of the grammar and half of the preposition table.

Although Ygyde text can be written with English glyphs, Ygyde glyphs are preferable because the English glyphs are ambiguous: 0 looks like O. l looks like 1 and I. 5 looks like S. rn looks like m.

Ygyde's alphabet consists of 32 glyphs: 6 vowels a e y o u i, 15 consonants b p d t g k w f z s j c m n l, full stop, 8 digits, octal point, space, and optional glyph h. Capital letters do not exist. Ygyde text can be efficiently coded with 5-bit bytes (2^5=32) in a binary computer file. Ygyde glyphs can be typed with a keyboard which has only 32 keys. Such a simplified keyboard would improve typing speed. If decimal numbers become obsolete and are replaced with octal numbers, glyph oli (octal point) may be used to represent the optional letter h. Ygyde text may begin with a full stop to ensure that it is not read upside-down.

The ygyde alphabet images are not shown here, but here is an image of them

name of
the letter
name of
the letter
name of the digit
a (8)bus, slumsa ebed, gette 0hofe
ygymdy oall, clockco 1hofy
uruleju isleepyfi 2hofo
bbabybe plippo 3hofu
delderdo t (9)tieta 4owi
ggoge kkin, cookku 5hosa
wvividwy ffool, fiftyfe 6hose
zzonezo ssoonsu 7hosy
jjobja cchurch, chince ;oli
(decimal or octal point)
mmothermi nno, ownnu zu
llily, poolly hvoiced h or hello
(optional glyph)
ho .hifu
(full stop)

The Ygyde glyphs listed in the alphabet table are optimized for handwriting. Glyphs (fonts) optimized for printing are wider at the bottom than at the top so that upside-down text is easily recognized. Glyphs optimized for dyseidetic subtype of dyslexic population have no exact mirror images.

The order of letters in Ygyde dictionaries: a, e, y, o, u, i, b, p, d, t, g, k, w, f, z, s, j, c, m, n, l, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Ygyde-English dictionaries are divided into 91 chapters. In the first 90 chapters every chapter has the same last morpheme. The last morpheme of the first chapter is ba. The last morpheme of the 90-th chapter is li. Numbers are listed in the last (91-st) chapter.

The phoneme i (sleepy) is longer than other phonemes so that it is not confused with the phoneme y (gym).

If the last letter (phoneme) of Ygyde word is a or i, the last syllable is stressed. If the last letter of Ygyde word is neither a nor i, the syllable preceding the last syllable is stressed (stressed antepenultima). Stressed syllables are underlined: ooo, oooo, ooooo, oooooo, ooooooo. The stressed syllable in Short Ygyde words is the same as in the equivalent Standard Ygyde words. The stress helps distinguish similar words, for example, iby (right) and ibi (along).

Phoneme h is pronounced like voiced h (end of very long g, voiced glottal fricative, International Phonetic Association number 147), or like voiceless h in the word hello. Voiced h is preferable because voiceless h is very similar to f. Phoneme h is used to improve word parsing. For example: ogo owyle (8 square meters) sounds like ogowyle, so it should be pronounced as ogo howyle. Phoneme h is also used to distinguish three letter long words in a spoken language. It is placed before the three letter long word only if its second phoneme is unvoiced consonant or n: p, t, k, f, s, c, n. For example: color upa (pink) is pronounced as hupa to distinguish it from color uba (white). Phoneme h may be omitted in written Ygyde.

Glyphs not included in the Ygyde's alphabet are coded as two consecutive vowels, two consecutive consonants, octal point followed by a letter, or octal digit followed by a letter. A pair of identical glyphs (e.g., +, -, =) can be coded with one glyph only if the context makes it clear that it means the pair of identical glyphs.

name of
the pair
name of
the pair
name of
the pair
ee(otete yy)odydy mm[omimi
nn]onunu me{omeme yn}onyny
zs~ozaza on>otiti no<obubu
nm\omama bb+obebe pp-opopo
gg* (multiplication)ogege kk/ (division)okuku jl^ (power)ojyjy
ww^2 (second power)owywy ffsquare rootofefe uu=ojuju
jjequals approximatelyojaja dbnatural exponentodada tpnatural logarithmosisi
ddintegralododo ttdifferentialotata zz? (question mark)ozozo
ii! (exclamation mark)ofifi llleft quotation markolyly ccright quotation markocece
pd%opapa gk&ogogo ssmonetary unitosusu
aa@osasa mn#omymy wf* (asterisk)owiwi
;p' (apostrophe)opupu ;;, (comma)olili ;o: (colon)ololo
;a; (semicolon)okaka t0qotyty l0rolele
f0hofufu k0xokyky w0vowewe
a;8 (single digit)ogo t;9 (single digit)ogy oofirst letters of a phone number, fax number, URL, email address, file name, etc.ococo

Adjectives and verbs are derived from these nouns the same way as from the compound words. For example: ogege = multiplication, egege = multiplicative, igege = to multiply.

a0å, Å a1á, Á a2ä, Ä
a3æ, Æ o0ö, Ö u0ü, Ü
e0é, É p1þ, Þ d0ð, Ð

Ygyde font and large GIF images of Ygyde glyphs are in this zip file: ygydefonts.zip You can make your own Ygyde font with the help of the large GIF images of Ygyde glyphs.

Note that this file is hosted on andrew nowicki's site, not mine -- Oren.

Sample of Ygyde text

Sample of Ygyde text

The first letter of the word is called prefix. (Letter h is ignored.) All words are divided into classes determined by the prefix and by length of the word.

prefix length
of word
of letters)
vowel1Functional vowels are listed in the preposition table.
2 Names of Ygyde letters are listed in the alphabet table.
Names of scientific constants, e.g., Π, e, speed of light are listed in the constant table.
4Names of scientific variables (e.g., ordinate, mass, viscosity) are made of one syllable from the adjective table table followed by one syllable from the noun table. The same compound words can be used as computer software commands.
6Proper nouns are made of two syllables from the adjective table followed by one syllable from the noun table. If the last syllable is be (plant), bo (animal), py (person = citizen), de (language), ty (country), ga (money = currency), gu (liquid = ocean or lake), gi (pump = geyser or hydrothermal vent), ka (valve = volcano), wa (tape = peninsula), ky (rigid solid = glacier), zu (city), sa (concavity = valley), se (protrusion = mountain), sy (part = province), so (group = archipelago), ju (road = highway), we (sheet = continent), wy (surface = island), mo (fusion = gulf), my (separation = strait), or ni (path = river), the proper noun is a global geographic name. A noun following the proper noun transforms the proper noun into an adjective. If the last syllable is ji (place), the proper noun is a global place, which is a crude (300 km resolution) geographic location. If the last syllable is ca (address), the proper noun is a local address. If the last syllable is zo (building), the proper noun is a short building name. Details are described before the geographic table .
8 Long names are divided into drugs, long geographic names, long building names, and names of people. The first syllable of a drug is ne (medical). The first syllable of a long geographic name is arbitrary. The remaining syllables are the same as the syllables of the global geographic names. The first syllable of a long building name is arbitrary. The remaining syllables are the same as the syllables of the short building names. The last syllable of the first name of a person is da (name). The remaining syllables encode geographic coordinates of birth place and year of birth. The last syllable of the last name of a person is py (person). The remaining syllables encode biometric features: skin color, eye color, length of nose and head, protruding cheek bones and brows, prognathism, relative length of fingers, gender, etc.
10 Multicellular names are precise biological names of multicellular plants and animals.
12 Monocellular names are precise biological names of monocellular (single cell) organisms and viruses.
a 3 Common adjectives are listed in the adjective table.
a 5 Adjectives are made of letter a followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
a 7 Adjectives are made of letter a followed by two syllables from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
e 3 Time periods are listed in the time table.
e 5 Adjectives are made of letter e followed by two syllables from the noun table.
e 7 Adjectives are made of letter e followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by two syllables from the noun table.
y 3 Common nouns are listed in the noun table.
y 5 Nouns are made of letter y followed by one syllable from the adjective table followed by one syllable from the noun table.
y 7 Nouns are made of letter y followed by two syllables from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table. If the last syllable is lo (atom), this is the name of a chemical element and it is constructed according to rules explained before the chemical table.
o 3 Numbers are listed in the number table.
o 5 Nouns are made of letter o followed by two syllables from the noun table.
o 7 Nouns are made of letter o followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by two syllables from the noun table. If the last syllable is lo (atom), this is a name of a chemical element and it is constructed according to rules explained before the chemical table.
u 3 Colors are listed in the color table.
u 5 Verbs are made of letter u followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
u 7 Verbs are made of letter u followed by two syllables from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
i 3 Prepositions, pronouns and conjunctions are listed in the preposition table.
i 5 Verbs are made of letter i followed by two syllables listed in the noun table.
i 7 Verbs are made of letter i followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by two syllables from the noun table.

If the last morpheme of the compound word is li, and other morphemes are two adjectives, or one adjective, or one noun, li is ignored in the definition of the compound word. Otherwise it means "no meaning" or "absurd."

name meaning name meaning
lu double Π, double Ludolphian number = 6.28319 ci e, natural logarithm base = 2.7182
fa γ, Euler-Mascheroni constant = 0.5772 wu Avogadro's number = 6.022X10^23 molecules/mol
go gas constant = 8.314 J/molK le Boltzmann's constant = 1.381X10-23 j/K
bi Planck's constant = 6.626X10^-34 Js ku Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.6699X10-8 W/m^2K^-4
mu speed of light = 2.9979X10^8 m/s si charge of electron = 1.602X10^-19 C
du permittivity of free space = 8.854X10-12 C^2/Nm^2 pa permeability of free space = 4ΠX10^-7 Wb/Am
ki gravitational constant = 6.673X10^-11 Nm^2/kg^2 gi g, acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s^2
lo mass of electron = 9.110X10^-31 kg so mass of proton = 1.673X10^-27 kg
ze mass of neutron = 1.675X10^-27 kg

Names of countries, cities and other major geographic elements are called global geographic names. They are made of 3 syllables (6 letters) and are based on their geographic location. The first syllable represents longitude of the center of the country, city, etc. It is measured east of Greenwich, England, and is expressed in angle degrees. The second syllable represents latitude of the same point. It is measured from the South Pole, rather than from the equator, and is expressed in angle degrees. The resolution of this coordinate system, called Ygyde coordinates, is on the order of 300 kilometers. Most cities and some countries are so small that they are outside the nodes defined by the coordinate system. Their names are based on the closest nodes. Duplicate names are eliminated by preceeding the global geographic name with an adjective (north, south, west, or east). For example, Switzerland is called bycety, but nearby Liechtenstein is called uby bycety. The meaning of the last syllable is explained below.
Last syllable be (plant) describes local plant species.
Last syllable bo (animal) describes local animal species.
Last syllable py (person) describes a citizen.
Last syllable de (language) describes a language.
Last syllable ty (country) describes a country.
Last syllable ga (money) describes currency.
Last syllable gu (liquid) describes an ocean or a lake.
Last syllable gi (pump) describes a geyser or a hydrothermal vent.
Last syllable ka (valve) describes a volcano.
Last syllable wa (tape) describes a peninsula.
Last syllable ky (rigid solid) describes a glacier.
Last syllable ju (road) describes a highway.
Last syllable zu (city) describes a city.
Last syllable sa (concavity) describes a valley.
Last syllable se (protrusion) describes a mountain.
Last syllable sy (part) describes a province or a state.
Last syllable so (group) describes an archipelago.
Last syllable we (sheet) describes a continent.
Last syllable wy (surface) describes an island.
Last syllable my (separation) describes a strait.
Last syllable mo (fusion) describes a gulf.
Last syllable ni (path) describes a river.

Four Ygyde word categories provide geographic location:

  1. Global place is a 6 letter long word that provides geographic location with approximate resolution of 300 km. Its last syllable is ji (place). The same name can be used as a name of a province. Details are explained in the geographic table.

  2. If the global place does not provide sufficient resolution, a local address can be used to improve the resolution to about 3.3 km. The local address is a 6 letter long word that is based on a local coordinate system established within the area defined by a particular global place. Its last syllable is ca (address). The coordinates of the local address are analogous to the global coordinates listed in the geographic table.

  3. If the local address does not provide sufficient resolution, a short building name can be used to improve the resolution to about 37 meters. The short building name is a 6 letter long word that is based on a local coordinate system established within the area defined by a particular local address. Its last syllable is zo (building). The coordinates of the short building name are analogous to the local address coordinates.

  4. If the short building name does not provide sufficient resolution, an arbitrary two-letter syllable is appended to the beginning of the short building name. This 8 letter long word is called long building name.

A detailed global address made of three words: global place, local address, and building name (short or long) is called global address.

This geographic location system, called Ygyde location system, is superior to GPS coordinates and postal codes because it uses letters and words that are easier to memorize and easier to pronounce than long rows of numbers.

syllable longitude latitude syllable longitude latitude
ba 0 1 be 4 3
by 8 5 bo 12 7
bu 16 9 bi 20 11
pa 24 13 pe 28 15
py 32 17 po 36 19
pu 40 21 pi 44 23
da 48 25 de 52 27
dy 56 29 do 60 31
du 64 33 di 68 35
ta 72 37 te 76 39
ty 80 41 to 84 43
tu 88 45 ti 92 47
ga 96 49 ge 100 51
gy 104 53 go 108 55
gu 112 57 gi 116 59
ka 120 61 ke 124 63
ky 128 65 ko 132 67
ku 136 69 ki 140 71
wa 144 73 we 148 75
wy 152 77 wo 156 79
wu 160 81 wi 164 83
fa 168 85 fe 172 87
fy 176 89 fo 180 91
fu 184 93 fi 188 95
za 192 97 ze 196 99
zy 200 101 zo 204 103
zu 208 105 zi 212 107
sa 216 109 se 220 111
sy 224 113 so 228 115
su 232 117 si 236 119
ja 240 121 je 244 123
jy 248 125 jo 252 127
ju 256 129 ji 260 131
ca 264 133 ce 268 135
cy 272 137 co 276 139
cu 280 141 ci 284 143
ma 288 145 me 292 147
my 296 149 mo 300 151
mu 304 153 mi 308 155
na 312 157 ne 316 159
ny 320 161 no 324 163
nu 328 165 ni 332 167
la 336 169 le 340 171
ly 344 173 lo 348 175
lu 352 177 li 356 179

Examples: USA = cajoty = "longitude=264 latitude=127 country"
American citizen (from USA) = cajopy = "longitude=264 latitude=127 person"
U.S. dollar = cajoga = "longitude=264 latitude=127 money"

An alternative geographic location system is based on a quadball, which is shown below. The quadball is spherical surface divided into 6 identical shapes resembling squares. Each shape, called quad, has the same local coordinate system. Different quads are labelled with different vowels: a e y o u i. The advantage of this geographic location system, called quadball location system, is high and nearly uniform resolution of about 120 km. Its minor flaw is that it describes only 8 types of geographical objects.


The quadball location system is based on the number table. 40 unused octal (or decimal) numbers are used to describe the quad and type of geographical object. For example: words otX and odX may describe country located in quad X. The 36 unused numbers describes 6 types of geographical objects (citizen, country, currency, lake, city, and mountain). A mountain located in an ocean is really an island. The remaining 4 words describe rivers. Coordinates of rivers are coordinates of their downstream ends. (Two quads are generally ignored because they depict Pacific Ocean and Antarctica.) Complete quadball geographic name is made of two words. The first word is the unused number. It is 3 letters long. The second word describes geographic coordinates. It is 4 letters long. For example: ota jaja = "country in quad a, longitude=60 latitude=60". In addition to these 7 types of quadball geographic names there are words describing address. For example: ojajaca = "quad=o longitude=60 latitude=60 address".

Names of all chemical elements have three morphemes. The first morpheme represents atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus). The middle morpheme describes characteristic property of the chemical element. The last morpheme is always lo (atom). If the prefix (first letter of the word other than letter h) is y, the atomic number is less than 91. If the prefix is o, the atomic number is at least 91.

Stressed syllables are underlined.
word meaning atomic
word meaning atomic
ybafylo hydrogen 1 lightweight obabulo protactinium 91 sickness
ybezelo helium 2 idle obemylo uranium 92 separation
ybysilo lithium 3 electric obymalo neptunium 93 detector
ybozalo beryllium 4 strong obotalo plutonium 94 war
ybumalo boron 5 good obugylo americium 95 light
ybipalo carbon 6 alive obikylo curium 96 rigid solid
hypagolo nitrogen 7 atmospheric hopanelo berkelium 97 science
hypekulo oxygen 8 burning hopemylo californium 98 separation
hypytalo fluorine 9 dangerous hopygylo einsteinium 99 light
hypobilo neon 10 optical hopomolo fermium 100 fusion
hypuwelo sodium 11 cellular hopunelo mendelevium 101 science
hypimalo magnesium 12 good hopibulo nobelium 102 sickness
ydasilo aluminum 13 electric odalilo lawrencium 103 no meaning
ydekylo silicon 14 brittle odelilo rutherfordium 104 no meaning
ydykulo phosphorus 15 burning odylilo dubnium 105 no meaning
ydocilo sulfur 16 changing odolilo seaborgium 106 no meaning
ydujilo chlorine 17 clean odulilo bohrium 107 no meaning
ydizelo argon 18 idle odililo hassium 108 no meaning
hytapalo potassium 19 alive hotalilo meitnerium 109 no meaning
hytewalo calcium 20 sticky hotelilo darmstadtium 110 no meaning
hytybilo scandium 21 optical hotylilo roentgenium 111 no meaning
hytozalo titanium 22 strong hotolilo copernicium 112 no meaning
hytudulo vanadium 23 gained hotulilo ununtrium 113 no meaning
hytimylo chromium 24 outer hotililo ununquadium 114 no meaning
ygakylo manganese 25 brittle ogalilo ununpentium 115 no meaning
ygezalo iron 26 strong ogelilo ununhexium 116 no meaning
ygydulo cobalt 27 gained ogylilo ununseptium 117 no meaning
ygomylo nickel 28 outer ogolilo ununoctium 118 no meaning
ygusilo copper 29 electric
ygimylo zinc 30 outer
hykagulo gallium 31 wet
hykekylo germanium 32 brittle
hykybulo arsenic 33 dead
hykosilo selenium 34 electric
hykubylo bromine 35 smelly
hykizelo krypton 36 idle
ywakalo rubidium 37 weak
ywekulo strontium 38 burning
ywybilo yttrium 39 optical
ywodolo zirconium 40 pretty
ywufelo niobium 41 cold
ywidulo molybdenum 42 gained
hyfatolo technetium 43 ephemeral
hyfedulo ruthenium 44 gained
hyfytulo rhodium 45 rich
hyfodolo palladium 46 pretty
hyfusilo silver 47 electric
hyfitalo cadmium 48 dangerous
yzagulo indium 49 wet
yzemylo tin 50 outer
yzytalo antimony 51 dangerous
yzokylo tellurium 52 brittle
yzucylo iodine 53 safe
yzizelo xenon 54 idle
hysakulo caesium 55 burning
hysekilo barium 56 massive
hysynolo lanthanum 57 busy
hysojilo cerium 58 clean
hysuwulo praseodymium 59 chemical
hysilelo neodymium 60 physical
yjatolo promethium 61 ephemeral
yjelelo samarium 62 physical
yjybilo europium 63 optical
yjokelo gadolinium 64 dirty
yjutilo terbium 65 repeating
yjijylo dysprosium 66 sonic
hycadylo holmium 67 middle
hycenelo erbium 68 medical
hycylolo thulium 69 small
hycocilo ytterbium 70 changing
hycutylo lutetium 71 old
hycipilo hafnium 72 similar
ymacylo tantalum 73 safe
ymezalo tungsten 74 strong
ymydulo rhenium 75 gained
ymokilo osmium 76 massive
ymusulo iridium 77 prolonged
ymidolo platinum 78 pretty
hynatulo gold 79 rich
hynegulo mercury 80 wet
hynybulo thallium 81 dead
hynokilo lead 82 massive
hynukylo bismuth 83 brittle
hynitolo polonium 84 ephemeral
ylalolo astatine 85 small
yletalo radon 86 dangerous
ylytolo francium 87 ephemeral
ylosylo radium 88 bad
ylubulo actinium 89 dead
ylizulo thorium 90 inner

Examples: ybafylo = "noun 1 lightweight atom" = hydrogen
abafylo = "adjective 1 lightweight atom" = of hydrogen
ubafylo = "verb 1 lightweight atom" = to make hydrogen

Names of atoms used in chemical formulas are two letters long. If the atomic number is less than 91, the name used in chemical formulas is the same as the first morpheme. Examples: ybafylo (hydrogen) is abbreviated as ba, the chemical formula of water (H2O) is ba2pe. If the atomic number is at least 91, the name used in chemical formulas is made of transposed letters of the first morpheme. For example: obemylo (uranium) is abbreviated as eb. If Ygyde glyphs are used, letters e and y are used as parentheses.

Stressed letters are underlined.
syllable adjective syllable adjective
ba aba = top be abe = wild
by aby = smelly bo abo = hairy
bu abu = dead bi abi = optical
pa hapa = alive pe hape = happy
py hapy = owned po hapo = caring
pu hapu = hungry pi hapi = similar
da ada = front de ade = different
dy ady = middle do ado = pretty
du adu = gained di adi = political
ta hata = dangerous te hate = slow
ty haty = old to hato = ephemeral
tu hatu = rich, expensive ti hati = repeating
ga aga = lost ge age = stationary
gy agy = simple go ago = atmospheric
gu agu = wet gi agi = geological
ka haka = weak ke hake = dirty
ky haky = brittle ko hako = artistic
ku haku = burning ki haki = massive
wa awa = sticky we awe = cellular (living cell)
wy awy = slippery wo awo = rotating
wu awu = chemical wi awi = genetic
fa hafa = elastic fe hafe = cold
fy hafy = lightweight fo hafo = long
fu hafu = dry fi hafi = feminine
za aza = strong ze aze = idle
zy azy = warm zo azo = tall or deep
zu azu = inner zi azi = narrow
sa hasa = bottom se hase = sharp
sy hasy = bad so haso = big
su hasu = prolonged si hasi = electric
ja aja = sexual je aje = masculine
jy ajy = sonic jo ajo = mobile
ju aju = rear ji aji = clean
ca haca = false, no, not ce hace = religious
cy hacy = safe co haco = legal
cu hacu = new ci haci = changing
ma ama = good me ame = true, yes
my amy = outer mo amo = attractive
mu amu = fast mi ami = mental
na hana = complex ne hane = medical
ny hany = repulsive no hano = busy
nu hanu = short ni hani = secret
la ala = opposite le ale = physical
ly aly = random lo alo = small
lu alu = mathematical li ali = philosophical

word meaning word meaning
eba noon (mnemonic hint: aba = top... sun position) ebe weekend (mnemonic hint: abe = wild... time to explore wilderness)
eby May (mnemonic hint: aby = smelly... flowers) ebo age of someone or something (mnemonic hint: abo = hairy... hair loss)
ebu menopause ebi sunrise (mnemonic hint: abi = optical)
hepa now (mnemonic hint: apa = alive) hepe vacation (mnemonic hint: ape = happy)
hepy leisure time (mnemonic hint: apy = owned) hepo until now (mnemonic hint: apo = caring)
hepu February (mnemonic hint: apu = hungry) hepi again (mnemonic hint: api = similar)
eda tomorrow (mnemonic hint: ada = front) ede seldom (mnemonic hint: ade = different)
edy today (mnemonic hint: ady = middle) edo spring (season, mnemonic hint: ado = pretty)
edu soon, in the very near future (mnemonic hint: adu = gained, compare with ega) edi November (mnemonic hint: adi = political... election)
heta night (nocturnal time, mnemonic hint: ata = dangerous, compare with eze) hete late (mnemonic hint: ate = slow)
hety in the past, ago (mnemonic hint: aty = old) heto second (unit of time, mnemonic hint: ato = ephemeral)
hetu already heti often (mnemonic hint: ati = repeating)
ega a moment ago, recently (mnemonic hint: aga = lost, compare with edu) ege always (mnemonic hint: age = stationary)
egy once, a single time (mnemonic hint: agy = simple) ego afternoon (hours 12-18, mnemonic hint: ago = atmospheric... walk outdoors)
egu July (mnemonic hint: agu = wet) egi eon (very long period of time, mnemonic hint: agi = geological)
heka evening (hours 18 to 24, mnemonic hint: aka = weak... tired) heke March (mnemonic hint: ake = dirty... muddy streets)
heky September (mnemonic hint: aky = brittle... nuts) heko sunset (mnemonic hint: ako = artistic)
heku deadline (mnemonic hint: aku = burning) heki year (mnemonic hint: aki = massive)
ewa still, yet, (mnemonic hint: awa = sticky) ewe childhood (mnemonic hint: awe = cellular)
ewy December (mnemonic hint: awy = slippery... icy roads) ewo 24 hours (mnemonic hint: awo = rotating)
ewu week ewi from now on (mnemonic hint: awi = genetic)
hefa adulthood before retirement (mnemonic hint: afa = elastic) hefe winter (mnemonic hint: afe = cold)
hefy Thursday hefo a long time (mnemonic hint: afo = long)
hefu January (mnemonic hint: afu = dry) hefi menstruation period
eza morning (hours 6 to 12, mnemonic hint: aza = strong... ready to work) eze night (hours 0-6, mnemonic hint: aze = idle... asleep, compare with heta)
ezy summer (mnemonic hint: azy = warm) ezo Tuesday
ezu Wednesday (mnemonic hint: azu = inner... part of the week) ezi during, while (mnemonic hint: azi = narrow)
hesa midnight (mnemonic hint: asa = bottom... sun position) hese then, at that time, at the same time (mnemonic hint: ase = sharp)
hesy Monday (mnemonic hint: asy = bad) uhhh ok then --Oren heso century (mnemonic hint: aso = big)
hesu month (mnemonic hint: asu = prolonged) hesi decade
eja puberty eje June
ejy April (mnemonic hint: ajy = sonic... singing birds) ejo time of day (mnemonic hint: ajo = mobile)
eju yesterday (mnemonic hint: aju = rear) eji Saturday (mnemonic hint: aji = clean... cleanup time)
heca never (mnemonic hint: aca = false) hece Sunday (mnemonic hint: ace = religious)
hecy day (diurnal time, mnemonic hint: acy = safe) heco as soon as (mnemonic hint: aco = legal)
hecu in the future (mnemonic hint: acu = new) heci fall, autumn (mnemonic hint: aci = changing... color of leaves)
ema holiday (mnemonic hint: ama = good) eme Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, mnemonic hint: ame = true)
emy Friday (mnemonic hint: amy = outer... part of the week) emo August (mnemonic hint: amo = attractive)
emu early (mnemonic hint: amu = fast) emi hour
hena ISO 8601 date (YYYYMMDD, mnemonic hint: ana = complex) hene moment of time (time of day, date, etc.)
heny work time (mnemonic hint: any = repulsive) heno workday (mnemonic hint: ano = busy)
henu moment, very short period of time (mnemonic hint: anu = short) heni October (mnemonic hint: ani = secret)
ela sudden, abrupt, unexpected (mnemonic hint: ala = opposite) ele period of time (mnemonic hint: ale = physical)
ely sometimes (mnemonic hint: aly = random) elo minute (mnemonic hint: alo = small)
elu Holocene time (number of seconds elapsed from the beginning of Holocene calendar, mnemonic hint: alu = mathematical) eli eternity (mnemonic hint: ali = philosophical)

Temporal adjectives are combinations of the functional vowel a + time period:

a ecu = future
a ede = adjective referring to something that seldom occurs
a eli = eternal
a emi = hourly
a ewo = daily
a ewu = weekly
a esu = monthly
a efe = wintry
a eso = centennial
a elu = chronological

syllable noun syllable noun
ba yba = astronomical object (mnemonic hint: ybaba = noun top - astronomical object) be ybe = (biological) plant (mnemonic hint: ybebe = noun wild plant = weed )
by yby = food (mnemonic hint: ybyby = noun smelly food) bo ybo = animal (mnemonic hint: ybobo = noun hairy animal = mammal )
bu ybu = sickness (mnemonic hint: ybubu = noun dead sickness = fatal disease) bi ybi = anatomical part of a multicellular plant (mnemonic hint: ybibi = noun optical - anatomical... = chlorophyll)
pa hypa = anatomical part of a multicellular animal (mnemonic hint: ypapa = noun alive - anatomical...) pe hype = relationship (mnemonic hint: ypepe = noun happy relationship)
py hypy = person (mnemonic hint: ypypy = noun owned person = slave) po hypo = parent (mnemonic hint: ypopo = noun caring parent)
pu hypu = child (son or daughter, mnemonic hint: ypupu = noun hungry child) pi hypi = sibling (mnemonic hint: ypipi = noun similar sibling = identical twin)
da yda = name (mnemonic hint: ydada = noun front name = first name) de yde = language (mnemonic hint: ydede = noun different language = foreign language)
dy ydy = text (mnemonic hint: ydydy = noun middle text = comment) do ydo = picture (mnemonic hint: ydodo = noun pretty picture)
du ydu = knowledge (mnemonic hint: ydudu = noun gained knowledge) di ydi = publication (mnemonic hint: ydidi = noun political publication)
ta hyta = war (mnemonic hint: ytata = noun dangerous war) te hyte = organization (mnemonic hint: ytete = noun slow organization = bureaucracy)
ty hyty = country (mnemonic hint: ytyty = noun old country) to hyto = business (mnemonic hint: ytoto = noun ephemeral business)
tu hytu = manager (mnemonic hint: ytutu = noun rich manager = owner) ti hyti = trade (buying and selling) (mnemonic hint: ytiti = noun repeating trade)
ga yga = money (mnemonic hint: ygaga = noun lost money) ge yge = environment (mnemonic hint: ygege = noun stationary environment = balance, stability)
gy ygy = light, radio waves (mnemonic hint: ygygy = noun simple light = monochromatic light) go ygo = gas (mnemonic hint: ygogo = noun atmospheric gas = air)
gu ygu = liquid (mnemonic hint: ygugu = noun wet liquid) gi ygi = pump (mnemonic hint: ygigi = noun geological pump = geyser)
ka hyka = valve (mnemonic hint: ykaka = noun weak valve = safety valve) ke hyke = soft solid (mnemonic hint: ykeke = noun dirty - soft solid = dung, excrement)
ky hyky = rigid solid (mnemonic hint: ykyky = noun brittle - rigid solid = ceramic) ko hyko = shape (mnemonic hint: ykoko = noun artistic shape = sculpture)
ku hyku = tube (mnemonic hint: ykuku = noun burning tube = chimney, exhaust pipe) ki hyki = rod (mnemonic hint: ykiki = noun massive rod = battering ram)
wa ywa = tape (mnemonic hint: ywawa = noun sticky tape) we ywe = sheet (mnemonic hint: ywewe = noun cellular sheet = cell wall)
wy ywy = surface (mnemonic hint: ywywy = noun slippery surface) wo ywo = disk (mnemonic hint: ywowo = noun rotating disk)
wu ywu = torus (mnemonic hint: ywuwu = noun chemical torus = molecular ring) wi ywi = helix (mnemonic hint: ywiwi = noun genetic helix = DNA)
fa hyfa = ball (mnemonic hint: yfafa = noun elastic ball) fe hyfe = powder (mnemonic hint: yfefe = noun cold powder = snow)
fy hyfy = foam (mnemonic hint: yfyfy = noun lightweight foam) fo hyfo = fiber (mnemonic hint: yfofo = noun long fiber)
fu hyfu = textile (mnemonic hint: yfufu = noun dry textile = towel) fi hyfi = garment (mnemonic hint: yfifi = noun feminine garment = bra)
za yza = container (mnemonic hint: yzaza = noun strong container) ze yze = furniture (mnemonic hint: yzeze = noun idle furniture = bed)
zy yzy = room (building part) (mnemonic hint: yzyzy = noun warm room) zo yzo = building (mnemonic hint: yzozo = noun tall building = tower)
zu yzu = city (mnemonic hint: yzuzu = noun inner city = downtown) zi yzi = hole (mnemonic hint: yzizi = noun narrow hole = slot, chink, crevice)
sa hysa = concavity (mnemonic hint: ysasa = noun bottom concavity = pothole ) se hyse = protrusion (mnemonic hint: ysese = noun sharp protrusion)
sy hysy = part (mnemonic hint: ysysy = noun bad part) so hyso = group (mnemonic hint: ysoso = noun big group)
su hysu = fastener (mnemonic hint: ysusu = noun prolonged fastener) si hysi = tool (mnemonic hint: ysisi = electric tool = noun tool powered by electricity)
ja yja = craftsman (mnemonic hint: yjaja = noun sexual craftsman = prostitute) je yje = machine (mnemonic hint: yjeje = noun masculine machine)
jy yjy = engine, motor (mnemonic hint: yjyjy = noun sonic engine = rocket engine) jo yjo = vehicle (mnemonic hint: yjojo = noun mobile vehicle)
ju yju = road (mnemonic hint: yjuju = noun rear road) ji yji = place (mnemonic hint: yjiji = noun clean place)
ca hyca = address (mnemonic hint: ycaca = noun false address) ce hyce = communication (mnemonic hint: ycece = noun religious communication = prayer)
cy hycy = net (mnemonic hint: ycycy = noun safe net = safety net) co hyco = expert (mnemonic hint: ycoco = noun legal expert = lawyer)
cu hycu = technology (mnemonic hint: ycucu = noun new technology = invention) ci hyci = manipulation, processing (mnemonic hint: ycici = noun changing manipulation)
ma yma = detector (mnemonic hint: ymama = noun good detector = sensitive detector) me yme = recorder (mnemonic hint: ymeme = noun true recorder = high fidelity recorder)
my ymy = separation (mnemonic hint: ymymy = noun outer separation = burst) mo ymo = fusion (mnemonic hint: ymomo = noun attractive fusion)
mu ymu = chip, electronic circuit (mnemonic hint: ymumu = noun fast chip) mi ymi = software (mnemonic hint: ymimi = noun mental software = soul)
na hyna = calculation (mnemonic hint: ynana = noun complex calculation) ne hyne = science (mnemonic hint: ynene = noun medical science)
ny hyny = force (mnemonic hint: ynyny = noun repulsive force) no hyno = work (mnemonic hint: ynono = noun busy work)
nu hynu = distance (mnemonic hint: ynunu = noun short distance = proximity) ni hyni = path, trajectory (mnemonic hint: ynini = noun secret path)
la yla = angle (mnemonic hint: ylala = noun opposite angle) le yle = unit (mnemonic hint: ylele = noun physical unit)
ly yly = number (mnemonic hint: ylyly = noun random number) lo ylo = atom (mnemonic hint: ylolo = noun small atom = hydrogen)
lu ylu = abstraction (mnemonic hint: ylulu = noun mathematical abstraction) li yli = no meaning, absurd (mnemonic hint: ylili = noun philosophical absurd)

If decimal numbers are written with the Ygyde glyphs, the last glyph is oli (decimal or octal point). If octal numbers are written with the Ygyde glyphs, the last glyph is not oli. Scientific notation of octal numbers is written as oli followed by octal fraction, oli and exponent: .octal.fraction.exponent . Scientific notation of decimal numbers is written as oli followed by decimal fraction, oli, exponent and oli: .decimal.fraction.exponent. . If Ygyde glyphs describe decimal numbers, letter a (sa) represents digit 8 and letter t (ty) represents digit 9. Glyph p is used as the minus sign. Decimal numbers have the advantage of being about 10% shorter than octal numbers, but they have two flaws: decimal multiplication table is about 65% bigger than octal multiplication table, and decimal numbers are not compatible with computers. Decimal system is best when Ygyde is used as international auxiliary language. When Ygyde is used as a native language, octal system is better. The octal system does not have digit eight and digit nine. Our Sumerian units of time and medieval calendar go well with the decimal system. The octal system is better suited for a more rational system that includes octal units of time: each day is divided into 64 hours (64=8*8), which are divided into 64 minutes, which are divided into 64 seconds. One octal second equals 0.33 decimal (normal) second. (These octal units of time are similar to the French Revolutionary Time.) If only one system (decimal or octal) is used, the other system can be used as names of LISP functions. (LISP is a computer programming language. Its grammar is similar to the grammar of Ygyde.) The average length of the year is 365.2425 days. If the year is divided into 6 months (rather than 12 months), all months except one will have the same number of days (61). Octal temperature scale is thermodynamic temperature set to 512 degrees (512=8^3) at the melting point of water.

word meaning word meaning word meaning word meaning
oba 10^14 obe 10^13 hopa first hope ordinal numbers (1st, 2nd, 98th)
oby 10^12 obo 10^11 hopy 8^-14 hopo 8^-13
obu 10^10 hopi 10^9 hopu 8^-12 obi 8^-11
oda 10^8 ode 10^7 hota 8^-10 hote 8^-9
ody 10^6 odo 10^5 hoty 8^-8 hoto 8^-7
odu 10^4 hoti 10^3 (mnemonic hint: hot temperature) hotu 8^-6 odi 8^-5
oga 10^2 oge 10 hoka 8^-4 hoke 8^-3
ogy 9 ogo 8 hoky 8^-2 hoko 8^-1
ogu 7 hoki 6 (mnemonic hint: team of 6 hockey players) hoku 1/4 ogi 1/3
owa 5 owe 4 hofa 1/2 hofe 0
owy 3 owo 2 hofy 1 hofo 2
owu 1 hofi 0 hofu 3 owi 4
oza 1/2 oze 1/4 hosa 5 hose 6
ozy 10^-1 ozo 10^-2 hosy 7 hoso 8
ozu 10^-3 hosi 10^-4 hosu 16 ozi 8^2
oja 10^-5 oje 10^-6 hoca 8^3 hoce 8^4
ojy 10^-7 ojo 10^-8 hocy 8^5 hoco 8^6
oju 10^-9 hoci 10^-10 hocu 8^7 oji 8^8
oma 10^-11 ome 10^-12 hona 8^9 hone 8^10
omy 10^-13 omo 10^-14 hony 8^11 hono 8^12
omu computer program code follows omi infinity honu 8^13 honi 8^14
ola several, a few ole spelling begins olo last olu per, fractions (1/2, 2/3, 1/47)
oly spelling ends oli decimal or octal point

Examples: 20 = owo oge. 2 and 10 = owo iwa oge. 120 angle degrees = 1/3 double Π radian = ogi lu olale.

Pairs of numbers are used to improve comprehension of spoken language in a noisy environment. If the pair represents decimal number, the first element of the pair is decimal and the second element is its octal equivalent. If the pair represents octal number, the first element of the pair is octal and the second element is its decimal equivalent. Examples:
10^4 = odu = odu hoce
8 = ogo = ogo hoso = hoso ogo = hoso
8^8 = oji = oji oda
8^-14 = hopy = hopy omo
Decimal 9 is associated with octal 16 (hosu). Decimal 10 is associated with octal 64 (ozi).

Colors are defined as intensities of their red, green, and blue components. Names of colors are three letters long. The first letter of all color names is u. The second letter is a consonant, and the last letter is a vowel. (The leading letter h is ignored because it is used in spoken Ygyde only.) The red green blue table provides rules that help memorize the color names listed in the color table. The red green blue table uses three new terms: dominant color, second color, and third color. The dominant color is the color component (red, green, or blue) that has greater intensity than the remaining color components. If blue is not the dominant color, it is the third color. Red is the third color only if green and blue (cyan) are the dominant colors.

If the second letter (ignore h) of the color name is b, there is no dominant color, so red, green, and blue components have the same intensities. There are four such colors: uba (white), ubo (gray), ubu (dark gray), and ubi (black).

If the second letter (ignore h) is not b, the last letter describes dominant color(s) and the second letter describes the remaining color components. If you cannot memorize the entire red green blue table, try to memorize vowels associated with the dominant colors and the fact that light colors are associated with consonants listed in the beginning of the alphabet table.

second letter last letter dominant color(s) dominant color intensity second color intensity third color intensity names of colors
b a none 100% (white) uba
o 67% (gray) ubo
u 33% (dark gray) ubu
i0% (black) ubi
p a / e / y a for red
e for green
y for blue
100% 67% 67% hupa  hupe  hupy
d 100% 67% 33% uda  ude  udy
t 100% 33% 67% huta  hute  huty
g 100% 67% 0% uga  uge  ugy
k 100% 0% 67% huka  huke  huky
w 100% 33% 33% uwa  uwe  uwy
f 100% 33% 0% hufa  hufe  hufy
z 100% 0% 33% uza  uze  uzy
s 100% 0% 0% husa  huse  husy
j 67% 33% 33% uja  uje  ujy
c 67% 33% 0% huca  huce  hucy
m 67% 0% 33% uma  ume  umy
n 67% 0% 0% huna  hune  huny
l 33% 0% 0% ula  ule  uly
s o / u / i o for yellow
u for cyan
i for magenta
100% none  67% huso  husu  husi
j 100% 33% ujo  uju  uji
c 100% 0% huco  hucu  huci
m 67% 33% umo  umu  umi
n 67% 0% huno  hunu  huni
l 33% 0% ulo  ulu  uli
meaning Ygyde
ube west (the Ygyde character for "e" points left, ibe = left) uby east (the Ygyde character for "y" points right, iby = right)
hupu south (mnemonic hints: (the Ygyde character for "u" points down) huti north (mnemonic hints: the Ygyde character for "i" is somewhat similar to a compass needle)
hupi indicates that a non-ygyde name follows this word ugi indicates that a non-ygyde geographical name follows this word (mnemonic hint: agi = geological)
huki indicates that a non-ygyde name of a material or chemical follows this word uwo indicates that a non-ygyde verb follows this word
uwu indicates that the following word is a new word, or a word used locally, or a common word that has non-standard meaning because it is used in a narrow technical field uwi indicates that a non-ygyde name of a species follows this word (mnemonic hint: awi = genetic)
hufo indicates that a non-ygyde adjective or adverb follows this word uzo indicates that a non-ygyde religious name follows this word
uzu indicates that other or unknown non-ygyde word follows this word hutu luminous, lustrous (mnemonic hint: atu = rich)
hupo opaque ugo translucent (mnemonic hint: agu = wet)
udo colorful (mnemonic hint: ado = pretty) udu light in color
huto matte ugi transparent (mnemonic hint: ago = atmospheric)
huko metallic color (mnemonic hint: ako = artistic) what? --Oren huku iridescent (mnemonic hint: aku = burning)
hufu vivid (mnemonic hint: afu = dry) huh? --Oren hufi color (mnemonic hint: afi = feminine) bruh --Oren
uzi glossy, specular (mnemonic hint: azi = narrow)


All words describing tastes have morpheme by (food) and morpheme ma (detector). The human tongue can detect six tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, oleogustus, and umami. (Acids taste sour. Bases taste bitter. Oleogustus is the taste of fatty foods. Umami is the taste of protein rich foods.) It is possible to design a table of tastes analogous to the red green blue table. The taste table would have one of two values (absent of present) for each of the six tastes. The total number of tastes would be 2^6 = 64.

word meaning word meaning
a explicit genitive on the following word or object (a hupi jon = John's, a ijy = our). e beginning of a comment - note that this Ygyde glyph looks like left parenthesis!
y end of a comment - note that this Ygyde glyph looks like right parenthesis! o explicit plural of the directly following object (yfipy = woman, o yfipy = women)
u joins compound words made of several words (hosa u oweko = 5 u "noun sheet shape" = pentagon) i The empty preposition that marks accusative.
hety past tense (mnemonic hint: aty = old) hecu future tense (mnemonic hint: acu = new)
hepa present tense (mnemonic hint: apa = alive)
iba above (at more or less distance), over, up (mnemonic hint: aba = top) ibe left (the Ygyde character for "e" is pointing towards left) used when giving directions and referring to positions
iby right (the Ygyde character for "y" is pointing towards right) used when giving directions and referring to positions ibo side (with reference to a central line, mnemonic hint: hair on one side, abo = hairy)
ibu almost (mnemonic hint: abu = dead) ibi along (mnemonic hint: abi = optical)
hipa transforms the following word into reflexive or emphatic word: myself, itself, herself, yourself, themselves, etc. (mnemonic hint: apa = alive) hipe "you" in singular (mnemonic hint: ape = happy)
hipy "the" (mnemonic hint: apy = owned) hipo about, pertaining, concerning, regarding + subject or object (mnemonic hint: apo = caring)
hipu last word in a general question, to which the answer is expected to be an agreement or disagreement (mnemonic hint: apu = hungry) hipi as (mnemonic hint: api = similar)
ida before in space, after in time (mnemonic hint: ada = front) ide except, minus, without, excluding, apart from (mnemonic hint: ade = different)
idy among, amid, part of (mnemonic hint: ady = middle) ido of + material, shape or color (mnemonic hint: ado = pretty)
idu everything, all + object, every, totally, to full degree (mnemonic hint: adu = gained) idi but (mnemonic hint: adi = political)
hita "you" in plural (mnemonic hint: ata = dangerous) hite from (specifying direction or origin in time or space - the Ygyde character for "e" is pointing towards left), since
hity rest, remainder, other, else (mnemonic hint: aty = old) hito "this", "that", "it", referring to one object of any sex
hitu for, for the benefit of, as a gift to + someone or something (but "for a reason" falls under the definition of "because", "for real" is best expressed only with the word "real") (mnemonic hint: atu = rich) hiti times (referring to repeated actions such as "I have seen this film three times"), (mnemonic hint: ati = repeating)
iga nothing, no + object, to no degree + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aga = lost) ige some + object, to some degree, partially + verb/adjective
igy also, "and" between phrases, besides, moreover, furthermore (mnemonic hint: agy = simple, compare with hina) igo because, on account of (to combine with "e ... y", mnemonic hint: ago = atmospheric... because of weather)
igu across, through (mnemonic hint: agu = wet) igi in the same place (mnemonic hint: agi = geological)
hika less, fewer + object, to lesser degree + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aka = weak, compare with iza) hike indicates that the following Ygyde word is certainly wrong (mnemonic hint: ake = dirty, compare with iji and iwu)
hiky to, towards (specifying direction or goal in time or space - the Ygyde character for "y" is pointing towards right), until hiko by + agent, author, builder, artist or similar (mnemonic hint: ako = artistic)
hiku with high probability, likely, 75% certain (possible to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: Brownian movement, aku = burning) hiki many, much + object, much, to a high degree, very + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aki = massive, compare with hify)
iwa "and", with, together with, both, as well as, plus, including, joining objects - not sentences (mnemonic hint: awa = sticky) iwe what (what time, what person, what place...), who, which, whose (used in relative clauses)
iwy "or" joining objects - not sentences (mnemonic hint: awy = slippery) iwo around (mnemonic hint: awo = rotating)
iwu indicates that the following word may not be correct Ygyde word (compare with hike and iji) iwi then, as a consequence (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: awi = genetic)
hifa under (in contact with) + object (mnemonic hint: afa = elastic... deforms under weight) hife with low probability, unlikely, 25% certain (possible to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: Brownian movement, afe = cold)
hify few + object, in small degree + verb/adjective, somewhat (mnemonic hint: afy = lightweight, compare with hiki) hifo everybody, everyone (mnemonic hint: afo = long)
hifu last word of an affirmative sentence (mnemonic hint: afu = dry) hifi "she", "her" (mnemonic hint: afi = feminine)
iza more + object, to higher degree + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aza = strong, compare with hika) ize passive voice of the following verb (mnemonic hint: aze = idle)
izy with medium probability, 50% certain (possible to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: Brownian movement, azy = warm) izo horizontal, at the same elevation or altitude (mnemonic hint: azo = tall or deep)
izu in, inside, into, within + object (mnemonic hint: azu = inner) izi between (in time or space - the following objects are to be joined with iwa) (mnemonic hint: azi = narrow)
hisa below (at more or less distance), beneath, down (mnemonic hint: asa = bottom) hise only (mnemonic hint: ase = sharp)
hisy goodbye (mnemonic hint: asy = bad) hiso most + object, to the most + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aso = big, compare with ilo)
hisu "they", "these", "them", referring to more than one object of any sex hisi therefore (to combine with "e ... y")
ija on (in contact with), aboard + object (mnemonic hint: aja = sexual) ije "he", "him" (mnemonic hint: aje = masculine)
ijy "we", "us" (mnemonic hint: ajy = sonic) ijo possible (mnemonic hint: ajo = mobile)
iju after in space, behind, next, before in time, previous (mnemonic hint: aju = rear) iji indicates that the following word is correct Ygyde word (mnemonic hint: aji = clean, compare with hike and iwu)
hica impossible (mnemonic hint: aca = false) hice each other, one another (mnemonic hint: ace = religious)
hicy in order to (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: be safe, acy = safe) hico according to, in conformity with (mnemonic hint: aco = legal)
hicu another (mnemonic hint: acu = new) hici instead of (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: aci = changing)
ima hello, hi (mnemonic hint: ama = good) ime certain (mnemonic hint: ame = true)
imy out, outside, beyond, past, away, off + object (mnemonic hint: amy = outer) imo in favor of (mnemonic hint: amo = attractive, compare with hiny)
imu "I", "me" (mnemonic hint: amu = fast) imi last word of a question to which the answer is expected to be more elaborated than yes or no (mnemonic hint: ami = mental)
hina "or" between phrases (mnemonic hint: ana = complex, compare with igy) hine than (to combine with "e ... y", (mnemonic hint: ane = medical)
hiny contrary to, against, anti, versus (mnemonic hint: any = repulsive, compare with imo) hino last word of a suggestion or order (mnemonic hint: ano = busy)
hinu nobody, no-one (mnemonic hint: anu = short) hini unknown, unknown number + object, to unknown degree + verb/adjective, with unknown probability (mnemonic hint: ani = secret)
ila despite, although, notwithstanding (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: ala = opposite) ile dimension, times, by (referring to dimensions, such as "the floor is 3 meters by 4 meters") (mnemonic hint: ale = physical)
ily any + object/time/adjective, something, anything (mnemonic hint: aly = random) ilo least + object, to the least + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: alo = small, compare with hiso)
ilu if (to combine with "e ... y iwi") (mnemonic hint: alu = mathematical) ili preposition for assumption or hypothesis (to combine with "e ... y iwi") (mnemonic hint: ali = philosophical)


There are three versions of Ygyde: Short, Standard, and Long. Standard Ygyde has short, two letter syllables described above. This version of Ygyde is used as a written and spoken language. Some 6 and 7 letters long words of the Standard Ygyde sound like a staccato. Short Ygyde makes them sound better by removing either second identical vowel or second identical consonant. The removed letter cannot be the last letter of the word. The letter can be removed only if letters adjacent to the removed letter are different and the shorter word is easy to pronounce. For example, osotate == osotae and apupipe == apuipe == apupie are correct, but okekebo == okekbo is too difficult to pronounce. The Short Ygyde words follow == mark in the Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary.

Long Ygyde syllables are made of three letters. They are called long syllables. Different speakers of Long Ygyde can use different phonemes in the same place of the same word. For example, vowel a and vowel e are interchangeable. Those who cannot pronounce a can pronounce e and vice versa. Long Ygyde's phonemes are divided into 11 groups; 3 vowels: first vowel is a or e, second vowel is u or o, third vowel is i or y, and 8 consonants: first consonant is b or p, second consonant is d or t, third consonant is g or k, fourth consonant is w or f, fifth consonant is z or s, sixth consonant is j or c, seventh consonant is m or n, and eighth consonant is l or r. Letter r may be pronounced like r in the word car and in many other ways. The remaining letters are pronounced like the Standard Ygyde letters. The total number of the long syllables is the same as the total number of the standard syllables. The Long Ygyde is a spoken only language of those who cannot pronounce some phonemes of the Standard Ygyde. Every standard syllable has a long syllable equivalent. It is possible but inconvenient to make the entire word from Long Ygyde syllables. The best way to use Long Ygyde is to use both Standard Ygyde syllables and Long Ygyde syllables in the same word. For example, if you cannot pronounce phoneme y, you can pronounce the word y-gy-de as ai-zai-de, ei-zei-de, ai-sai-de, and in many other ways. Long Ygyde is also used to change the pronunciation of words that sound so similar that they are difficult to distinguish in a noisy environment. These words sound most distinct when one of them is pronounced as Standard Ygyde and the other is pronounced as Long Ygyde. The Long Ygyde words follow === mark in the Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary.

The following table explains how to translate vowels and syllables from Standard Ygyde to Long Ygyde. If the compound word has any Long Ygyde syllables, its last syllable is stressed to distinguish the word from Short Ygyde words.

a au e ua y ai o ia
u ui i iu
ba bau be bua by bai bo bia
bu bui bi biu pa dau pe dua
py dai po dia pu dui pi diu
da gau de gua dy gai do gia
du gui di giu ta wau te wua
ty wai to wia tu wui ti wiu
ga zau ge zua gy zai go zia
gu zui gi ziu ka jau ke jua
ky jai ko jia ku jui ki jiu
wa mau we mua wy mai wo mia
wu mui wi miu fa lau fe lua
fy lai fo lia fu lui fi liu
za bla ze blu zy bli zo bal
zu bul zi bil sa dla se dlu
sy dli so dal su dul si dil
ja gla je glu jy gli jo gal
ju gul ji gil ca wla ce wlu
cy wli co wal cu wul ci wil
ma zla me zlu my zli mo zal
mu zul mi zil na lal ne lul
ny lil no jal nu jul ni jil
la mla le mlu ly mli lo mal
lu mul li mil

In a noisy environment the letters of the words may be misunderstood unless they are spelled out. For example, word oje (million) may be spelled out as: ole (spelling begins), to (letter o), jo (letter j), je (letter e), oly (spelling ends).


  1. Are the words easy to pronounce? Are there any consonant clusters?
  2. Is it easy to understand fast speech? Are the boundaries between the words obvious even if you do not know the words?
  3. Is it easy to make compound words? How long are these compound words?
  4. If you do not know a word and do not know its morphemes, can you tell if it is an adjective, a noun, or a verb? Can you tell if it is a compound word?
  5. Are there any mnemonic links between the morphemes that make it easier to memorize the morphemes? Are there any rules that minimize the burden of memorizing the morphemes?
  6. Is it possible to make arbitrarily long and arbitrarily complex sentences that have clear, unambiguous meaning?
  7. Is the auxlang culturally neutral, or does it sound like a relic of colonialism?
  8. Is it terse?
  9. If the vocabulary is borrowed from natural languages, at least 99% of the vocabulary must be borrowed from Mandarin language because Mandarin vocabulary is known to the largest number of people. The rest of the vocabulary must be made of technical terms that are common to many languages, for example, the word computer.


Philosophical languages are conlangs devoid of unnecessary randomness. There are two kinds of philosophical languages: taxonomic and oligosynthetic. Taxonomic languages resemble the Dewey Decimal Classification System used in libraries. The undesirable consequence of this taxonomy is that all words for different vegetables sound similar and may be misunderstood in a noisy environment. Almost all the words of the oligosynthetic languages are compound words defined in such a way that their meanings can often be guessed from the meanings of their morphemes. For example, if you know the meaning of the morphemes "mail" and "man," you can guess the meaning of the compound word "mailman." If the language has more than about 1000 morphemes, it is difficult to memorize the morphemes, so the language is not oligosynthetic.

Ygyde is an oligosynthetic language. It has only one flaw. Some of its compound words are not defined well, which means that it is difficult to guess their meaning. Additional morphemes would eliminate this flaw, but very few of the additional morphemes would be used as often as the existing morphemes. Standard Ygyde has unique ability to cram very large number (180) of different meanings into very short (two letters, consonant-vowel) morphemes made of 21 phonemes.

Kali-sise is also an oligosynthetic language, and the only one that is almost as easy to learn and pronounce as Ygyde. These two languages provide alternative solutions to the same linguistic problems. Compound Kali-sise words are longer than compound Ygyde words because Kali-sise has fewer phonemes (10) and more morphemes (411). Most of these morphemes are borrowed from natural languages to make them easy to remember. The most serious flaw of Kali-sise is poor word parsing. (Those who do not speak fluent Kali-sise cannot easily determine the end of one word and the beginning of the next word of a spoken language.) This flaw can be fixed by placing a vowel prefix in front of every word. For example: prefix i = noun, prefix u = verb, prefix a = adjective, prefix e = proper noun.

Tunu is similar to Kali-sise because it has 4 letter long morphemes. It is a borderline oligosynthetic language because it has more morphemes (1137) than Ygyde and Kali-sise.

Every word of the taxonomic Ro language has a prefix which defines general category of the word. The last vowel of the word defines part of speech. The remaining letters are arbitrary, so it is impossible to guess the meaning of the word. Some words are difficult to pronounce because they have consonant clusters.

Richard K. Harrison knows Ro language well. Here is his opinion:
The vocabulary is outdated, and we do not know how to add modern terms like "computer" and
"microwave oven." The creators died before they reached a definite conclusion about the
meanings of gerunds, the naming of nations, and other matters. Also there is the problem of
words with similar meanings sounding and looking similar, so that the smallest error of
typing or speech changes the meaning of a sentence. Finally, Ro as it was used by its creators
was a crude encoding of English, with idioms that make no sense to non-English-speakers
being translated word by word into Ro, with every grammatical function of English included
when many could have been simplified. Ro's claims to being a priori are false, if you look
deeply. Grammatically, syntactically, semantically, even down to capitalization and
punctuation it is a crude cipher for encoding English.
"Sympathizers have been few. Poverty distressed me. More than once I became discouraged,
and tried to lay down the undertaking for something that would afford at least the necessaries
of life. But the work had hold of me, and would not let go. Often in my dreams or in the waking
hours of the night, columns of words chased each other tumultuously through my brain, and
banished the possibility of sleep, until for relief I was compelled to get up, turn on the
light, and commit to paper the rampant vocables." - Edward P. Foster, creator of Ro, 1913
(posted on 29 October 2002 on alt.language.artificial by Richard K. Harrison)

Alphabet of the oligosynthetic aUI language is made of 31 letters. Every letter has a meaning, so it is a kind of morpheme letter. There is not enough morphemes to define compound words precisely. Pronunciation is difficult because there are consonant clusters and because it takes lots of practice to distinguish short vowels from long vowels. More info about the aUI language.

Lojban is one of the most difficult languages to learn. Some words are difficult to pronounce because they have consonant clusters. There are 1350 Lojban morphemes. The morphemes have at least two forms which are 5 letters long and 4 letters long. Some morphemes also have a 3 letter long form. Compound words, which are called lujvo are unpopular because they are very long.

Loglan is similar to Lojban. Its on-line manuals are superior to on-line Lojban manuals.

There are other, rather obscure philosophical languages. George Dalgarno's Art of Signs (Ars Signorum, 1661) was the first book describing a philosophical language. The latest edition of the book was published in 2001 by Oxford University Press. Athanasius Kircher's book about cryptography and a philosophical language, "Polygraphia Nova," was published in 1663. Bishop John Wilkins described another philosophical language in "An Essay Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language" in 1688. Dalgarno and Wilkins collaborated for a while, but could not agree on the best way to implement the philosophical language. Dalgarno favored an oligosynthetic language having about 1000 morphemes, while Wilkins choose a taxonomic language having over 4000 morphemes. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz studied Dalgarno's and Wilkins's work and invented foundations of his own philosophical language. Charles Milton Elam described a language named Oz in a small book, "The Case for an A Priori Language." The book was published in 1932 by the Open Sesame Press in Cincinnati, Ohio. Ilomi, Sona, Dunia, and Ododu are immature oligosynthetic languages. Ilomi has better word parsing than other languages. It is nearly impossible to guess what morphemes make up Sona compound words. Fuishiki Okamoto created a taxonomic language called Babm. it is described in a 140 page book published in April of 1962. John Yench invented a language named Idirl. Any word ending in "v" means a part of the body; "k" means it's an extremity. The "th" means it is very low, and the "ah" refers to a part. Idirl is described in a 144 page book, "A Universal Language for Mankind." The book was published in January 2003 by Writers Club Press.

More info about philosophical languages:
- In the land of invented languages, by Arika Okrent (list of auxlangs)
- Opentopia article about constructed languages
- Wikipedia article about international auxiliary languages
- Richard K. Harrison's Bibliography of Planned Languages
- http://www.glossopoiesis.net/Articles/Glossopoiesis/loglangs.html
- http://www.fuchu.or.jp/~d-logic/en/uni.html
-Umberto Eco's "The search for the perfect language" was reprinted by Blackwell Publishers in 1997.

updated March 7, 2020

Patrick Hassel-Zein made this file. Andrew Nowicki updated it.

There are currently no actual grammatical rules in Ygyde. Most of the grammar is simply defined by the meanings and use of the words. The general idea is that the order of the words in any phrase is very free, except when dealing with logical prepositions and combinations of the same - more about that later. This means that people with different linguistic backgrounds may construct sentences indifferent ways. The only suggested restrictions are:

When speaking Ygyde, you do not need to specify plural or singular forms, temporal forms of verbs or any types of articles unless it is important to clarify details. The interpretation of basic sentences will be depending on the context. Ways to express details such as plural or time of verbs are presented in other sections of this primer.

Ygyde does not have indefinite articles (a, an), but it has two words similar to definite articles: hito (this, that, it), and hisu (they, these, them). English phrase "elephants are big" means that all elephants are big. The same Ygyde phrase (o ysozybo aso) means that most elephants are big. Ygyde phrase ysozybo aso (elephant is big) means that average elephant is big.

Some interpretations of very simple sentences:

Any sentence may be changed with the phrasal suffixes:
Affirmative sentence: ije uduti o yfodyby hifu = "He is buying bananas." (uduti = to buy, o = plural, yfodyby = banana, hifu = optional last word of an affirmative sentence)
Question: ije uduti o yfodyby hipu = "Is he buying bananas?" (hipu = last word in a general question, to which the answer is expected to be an agreement or disagreement)
Order: uduti o yfodyby hino = "Buy bananas!" (hino = last word of a suggestion or order)

Numbers: Fractions other than those readily defined among the numbers may be expressed with number + olu + number. Expressions including both an integer and a fraction are expressed with the word iwa (meaning "and"). Use the expression "<Integer> iwa <numerator> olu <denominator>".
Example 1: 1/4 is expressed as (hofy) olu owi or hoku if we are talking in octal numbers.
Example 2: 3/4 is becomes hofu olu owi in octal numbers.
Example 3: 3/4 is becomes owy olu owe in decimal numbers.
Example 4: hofo iwa hofu olu owi means "2 and 3/4" in octal numbers.
Ordinal numbers: hope hofu ysobe means "third tree" in octal numbers.

Although there need not be any distinction between singular and plural nouns or pronouns, plural may be specified by adding either a number, iza (more), hika (fewer) or similar prepositions before a noun. It is also possible to specify general and unspecific plural with the letter o.

The functional vowel a (genitive) may often be left out. a may also be referring to an entire phrase situated between e and y.
Example 1: ije uwopy iwa o yboebo = "he dances with wolves". (uwopy = to dance, iwa = with, plus, including, yboebo, ybobebo = wolf)
Example 2: ije (upalu) (a) e uwopy iwa o yboebo y = "he is one who dances with wolves". (upalu = to be, a = genitive, e = left parenthesis, y = right parenthesis)

A phrase of the type (a) e...y may be used as a noun or a name.
Example 1: (a) e uwopy iwa o yboebo y uba = "the one that dances with wolves is white." (uba = white)
This actually says, literally white as in #FFFFFF. Presumably referring to a ghost or skeleton... --Oren
Example 2: huko e uwopy iwa o yboebo y = name of a person who dances with wolves (the word uko indicates foreign name of a person).

The functional vowel i (accusative) is used before objects that take no preposition, but are not the active person in a phrase. This will clarify that the object is not a subject - especially if a phrase is written in straight order (noun followed by verb followed by object). However, this vowel may be left out if the word order is straight.
Example 1: both imu uduti i hito yfodyby and imu uduti hito yfodyby mean "I buy this banana." (hito = this, that, it)
Example 2: i yfodyby imu uduti or even i yfodyby uduti imu means "a banana I buy", i.e. "I buy a banana".
Example 3: hipy yfodyby imu uduti should be interpreted as hipy yfodyby uduti (i) imu, i.e. "the banana buys me"! (hipy = the)

The functional vowel i (accusative) also indicates passive voice: hipy i ylacopy hety icojaci = "the criminal was arrested" (hipy = the, ylacopy = criminal, hety = past tense, icojaci = to arrest)

Use functional vowels whenever the interpretation of a phrase is unclear!
Example 1: hipy haso ycujepy owoajo means nothing more and nothing less than "the big boy helicopter", and must actually be interpreted as "the big boy is a helicopter." (haso = big, ycujepy = boy, owoajo = helicopter)
Example 2: a e haso ycujepy y owoajo, owoajo a e haso ycujepy y both mean "a helicopter of big boy."
Example 3: a ycujepy haso owoajo and haso owoajo a ycujepy both mean "big helicopter of a boy."
Example 4: a haso ycujepy owoajo and ycujepy a haso owoajo both mean "a boy of a big is a helicopter"
Example 5: haso e ycujepy owoajo y and haso ycujepy u owoajo both mean "a big <boy helicopter>", and it is not very clear how this is supposed to be interpreted - possibly as "big boy-helicopter", but then the question is what a "boy-helicopter" might be. This phrase should probably better be changed to haso (e) acujepy owoajo (y) = "big boyish helicopter"- that is still a strange phrase, but the possible interpretation is much more obvious.

Throughout this document, the functional vowels are usually written between parentheses when the vowels may be left out.

Remember that e and y are always used in pairs! Several pairs and even nested pairs may be used in one and the same phrase.

All the prepositional verb modifiers are defined in other tables describing Ygyde. This section describes how the four listed words may be used as verb modifiers. It is quite possible to find further modifiers for other or similar functions... hety followed by verb indicates past tense of that verb. hecu followed by verb indicates future tense of that verb. hepa may be used to explicitly specify present tense of that verb.
Example 1: imu uduti (i) hipy (o) yfodyby = "I buy the bananas."
Example 2: imu hety uduti (i) o yfodyby = "I have bought bananas."
Example 3: imu hecu uduti (i) o yfodyby = "I will buy bananas."
Example 4: imu hepa uduti (i) o yfodyby = "I am buying bananas."
Example 5: o yfodyby ize uduti hiko imu = "Bananas are bought by me." (ize = passive voice, hiko = by)

It is possible to use the construction (a) e...y for passive constructions.

The word ize may be used together with any of the other verb modifiers.
Example: o yfodyby ize hety uduti hiko imu = "Bananas were bought by me."

If neither hety, hecu nor hepa is specified, present tense is likely but it is not taken for granted!
Example: o yfodyby ize uduti hiko imu may be interpreted as "Bananas are bought by me", "Bananas will be bought by me" as well as "Bananas were bought by me!"

upalu = "verb alive abstraction" = "to be, to exist". This verb is not necessary in simple or common phrases where the verb "to be" is required in English. Adjectives and other descriptions of objects may be regarded as "pseudo-verbs". However, this verb is absolutely necessary in some occasions.
Example 1: A phrase such as "that is a giraffe", is simply translated as hito yzyobo ("that giraffe") or hito upalu yzyobo ("That is giraffe"). The more specific phrase hito hepa upalu hofy yzyobo ("That presently is one giraffe") is less suitable, since it implies that we are dealing with some mutating lifeform that currently is a giraffe, but may have been something else before and may turn into something else in a little while.
Example 2: "The giraffe is yellow" is best expressed as yzyobo huco. The phrase yzyobo epa huco means "giraffe now yellow", which may imply that the giraffe wasn't yellow before, and may not remain yellow.
Example 3: "I am a dentist" is expressed as imu yseneco or imu upalu yseneco. The phrase "I am happy to be a dentist" must however be expressed with use of upalu: imu hape upalu yseneco ("I am happy being dentist"), (hape = happy), since imu hape yseneco should be interpreted as "I (am) a happy dentist!"

The English verb "to have" can be used to express many very different actions. Be careful to use the correct translation to Ygyde depending on the context! (upylu = "to have, to own" = "verb owned abstraction", usumo = "to hold" = "verb prolonged fusion") Consider the deeper meaning of the definitions of these verbs in Ygyde when selecting which is most suitable in a given context. In many cases, such as when the verb "to have" is followed by abstract items, it is often best expressed with other verbs.
Example 1: "I have a house" is probably best translated as imu upylu ycyzo ("I own home").
Example 2: "I have a banana" can be expressed as imu upylu yfodyby ("I own banana"), imu usumo yfodyby ("I hold banana"), or yfodyby igi imu ("banana in the same place as me", igi = in the same place).
Example 3: "I have to go" should be phrased as "I must go" or "I am forced to go".
Example 4: "I have a headache" can be expressed as imu usumo obapabu (more or less implying that "I have a prolonged fusion with a headache") or a imu ybapa ibuma ("my head is aching") (usumo = to hold = verb prolonged fusion, obapabu = headache, ybapa = head, ibuma = to ache).
Example 5: "I have an idea" is best expressed with the verb umini = "to have an idea"(corresponding to the noun ymini = "mental path" = "idea")

Prepositions are often used in ways similar to how the corresponding prepositions are used in, for example, English, but you must be careful with the exceptions and restrictions in the definitions of prepositions such as "then", "by", "about" and "and"!

The words ojuju (equal) and ade (different) may be used in expressions such as "at the same time" (ojuju ejo) and "someone else" (ade hypy).

"Too many" is expressed as iba hiki ("above many"),"too few" as hisa ily ("below any").

The words hupu (south), huti (north), ube (west), and uby (east) may be combined with each other to specify diagonal directions such as huti ube = "northwest". Geographic coordinates may be specified by use of yle (unit):owo oge owa yle huti owy oge yle uby = "25 units north, 30 units east. By the way, yle is a very useful word for degrees of anything!
Example 1: hofi yle yzyle = "zero degrees Celsius" -- but it may also be acceptably clear to say hofi yzyle.
Example 2: owy yle oneguby = "three units tea" (to be interpreted as "three cups of tea")
Example 3: owa yle yfodyby = "five units bananas" (this may sound funny in English, but not in Chinese, Swedish or some other languages)
For those that speak Chinese: compare with the generic classifier "ge"!

The words hiky (to) and hite (from) may be used together with preposition that state positions. If the preposition izu (in, inside, into, within) is used alone, it means "to be located in". hiky izu = "into". hite izu = "from the inside". Note, for example, the difference between phrases such as "he is walking in the garden" and "he is walking into the garden"!

The word iwa (and) can only be used to join objects together. The word igy (also) may join phrases. igy may also be used for expressions like "Me too!" igy imu! In most other cases the word "and" is translated as iwa (with).
Example 1: it is OK to say "I and you are buying a house".
Example 2: it is OK to say "We are buying a house and a car".
Example 3: it is not OK to say "We move to Mars and buy a house". The correct way of phrasing the meaning of such a sentence might be "We move to Mars. We also buy a house" (that would call for the word igy (also)!) "We move to Mars. At that time we buy a house" or "We move to Mars. There we will buy a house." The rephrasing will generally cause more logical expressions. The word iwy (or) can only be used to join objects together. The word hina (or) joins phrases only. A phrase such as "apples, bananas and pears" should in Ygyde be expressed with the word iwa (and) between all the nouns.

Words such as "sometime", "anytime", "never", "always", "somewhere", "nowhere", "everywhere", "somebody", "anybody" and so on are translated with the prepositions ily (any), ige (some), iga (nothing, no), ola (a few), hiki (many), hiso (most), or idu (all) followed by a suitable word, such as ejo (time of day), ypy (person), yji (place).

The functional vowels e ... y are very useful to group causes and actions of logical prepositions clearly. This becomes especially useful in long and/or complex statements. However, the e ... y may be excluded from simple statements where the logic is clear - particularly the word "then" may be excluded.
Example 1: ilu (e) hipe uduti (i) o yfodyby (y) iwi (e) imu udugali (i) hisu (y) = "If <you buy bananas>, then <I will borrow them>".
Example 2: ilu haca (e) hipe uduti (i) o yfodyby (y) imu ulati ige = "Unless <you buy bananas>, I will steal some."

Verb forms such as "would", "might" and "definitely" are usually used in logical statements such as "if you give me money then I will/would/might buy a house". The degree of probability in the resulting action may be specified with hica (impossible), hife (unlikely, 25% certain), izy (50% certain), hiku (75% certain), ime (certain), hini (unknown probability)
Example 1: ilu (e) hipe uduti (i) o yfodyby (y) hife (e) imu ulati (i) hisu (y) = "If <you buy bananas>, it is slightly probable that <I steal them>".
Example 2: ilu (e) hipe uduti (i) o yfodyby (y) hiku (e) imu udugali (i) hisu (y) = "If <you buy bananas>, it is most probable that <I borrow them>".

If the answer to a question is expected to be "yes" or "no," the last word of the question is hipu. For example, "are you busy?" can be translated into hipe hano hipu (you busy question), or just hano hipu (busy question).

If the answer to a question is expected to be more elaborate than "yes" or "no," the last word of the question is imi. These detailed questions use the word iwe (what, who, which, whose) to specify what we are asking about. iwe is always placed before the word we are asking about. "When?" becomes iwe ejo (what time of day), "who?" becomes iwe hypy ("what person?") "Why?" becomes iwe opope ("what cause?"), "how many?" becomes iwe olely ("what quantity?"). If the context makes it clear what we are asking about, the entire sentence may have only two words, for example, ejo imi means "what time of day is it now?".

iwe is also used in relative clauses, for example: "I do not know what/which person is missing." It does not transform affirmative sentence into a question, so iwe ejo is not a question, but a phrase meaning "pertaining to a time of day".

The words "when" and "then" in the meaning of "at that time" can be translated into hito ejo (that time, hito = this, that, it, ejo = time of day) in Ygyde.

The words "neither" and "nor" may be expressed as "also not", i.e., igy haca.

Words such as "may", "might", "could" and "should" often mean assumptions, guesses or uncertainty. Such expressions may be expressed with the preposition ili possibly combined with probability words such as hife, izy, hiku hini. The word ili can also be used to express doubt.
Example 1a: ije uduti o yfodyby = "he buys bananas".
Example 1b: ije ili uduti o yfodyby = "he is assumed to be buying bananas".
Example 2a: ilu ije hety uduti o yfodyby iwi imu hife uzuby hisu = "If he has bought bananas, then I may eat them" (chances are around 25%).
Example 2b: ilu ije ili hety uduti o yfodyby iwi imu hife hepa uzuby hisu = "Assuming that he bought bananas, then I might have eaten them."
Example 3a: ije uduti o yfodyby hipu = "Is he buying bananas?"
Example 3b: ili ije uduti o yfodyby hipu = "Could he be buying bananas?"
Example 3c: imu umino ije ili uduti o yfodyby = "I think he may be buying bananas"

Most simple sentences in Ygyde will have structures that do not deviate much from English. More complex phrases may seem complicated for beginners, but phrases written in Ygyde will generally be clearer and cause less risk for misinterpretation. Here is one example of a more complex sentence in Ygyde (with some words marked in bold characters or with underlining to simplify the reading, as well as possible extra use of e ... y marked as < ... >) to illustrate the strengths of the language:

There are two possible ways to write foreign names in Ygyde.