get rid of sing pl distinction, except for the first person pronoun. hence, "ðà" can refer to a single person, and "her" can refer to a group of women. nouns take the singular form in nom/acc, gen and future but take plural in copula and past. pronouns: "i" "he" "she" "it" "they" "we" "you" abbr nominative ì hè śè it ðà wè yù nom accusative mè him hŕm tim ðem us yùm acc genitive mì hiz hŕ its ðer or yŕ gen dative temè tẏim tuhŕ tùt teðm tus çù dat instrumental wimè wim wiŕ wit wiðm wus iðyù inst ablative rumè ruim ruŕ ruit ruðm rus ruyù abl locative nimè nim niŕ nit nuðm nus nyù loc vocative òym hòy hòyś òyt òyð òwè hyù voc future ol hil śil tẏl ðel wil yẏl fut copular ìm hèz śèz tis ðer wŕ yŕ cop habetive ìv hèv śèv tiv ðàv wèv yùv hab past copular ìz hyuz śyuz tuz ðàŕ wèŕ yùŕ pacp past habetive ìd hèd śèd tid ðàd wèd yùd cond regular nouns: nominative dog gùs rokit ekò accusative dogum gùsum rakitum ekòm genitive dogz gùsiz rokits ekòz dative tudog tugùs turokit tekò instrumental widog wigùs wirokit wekò ablative rudog rugùs rurokit rekò locative nidog nigùs nirokit nekò vocative hàdog hàgùs hàrokit àyeko future dogẏl gùsẏl rokitẏl ekòl copular dogŕ gùsŕ rokitŕ ekòr habetive doguv gùsuv rokituv ekòv past copular doguz gùsuz rokituz ekòwuz past habetive dogud gùsud rokitud ekòd verb forms are reduced to only the base, past, and progressive (prog) forms. crèàt, crèàd, crèàtiñ rìt, ròt, rìtiñ luv, luvd, luviñ ìv dògum. doGum simple present: nom + base ì crèàt "i create" present prog: cop + prog ìm crèàtiñ "i am creating" simple past: nom + past ì crèàd "i created" past prog: pacp + prog ìz crèàtiñ "i was creating" present perf: hab + past ìv crèàd "i have created" pres. perf. prog: hab + prog ìv crèàtiñ "i have been creating" past perfect: cond + past ìd crèàd "i had created" past perf. prog: cond + prog ìd crèàtiñ "i had been creating" simple future: fut + base ol crèàt "i will create" future prog: fut + prog ol crèàtiñ "i will be creating" fut. pres. perf: fut+uv+past ol uv crèàd "i will have created" fut. pres. prog: fut+uv+prog ol uv crèàtiñ "i will have been creating" condit. present: cond + base ìd crèàt "i would create" condit. progress: cond+uv+prog ìd uv crèàtiñ "i would be creating" condit. past: cond+uv+past ìd uv crèàd "i would have created" condit. future: fut + base ol crèàt "i will create" (same as simp. fut.) passive: past + past ìz crèàd "i was created" as seen here, the past habetive can also be called the conditional form, as it creates the conditional mood in some tenses including the present. þhe copula and habetive forms of the noun can be used without a verb: ìm jon "i am john" ìz plumŕ "i was a plumber" ìv catum "i have a cat" ìd jobum "i had a job" other forms of the copula are regular with forms bè, bin, bèin other forms of to have are regular with forms hav, had, havin yes-no questions are, as in modern english, marked by the use of "do" at start of the sentence, with principal parts dù, did, dùin. Q. present dù yù luv mè "do you love me?" Q. past did yù luv mè "did you love me?" however, this now applies to all questions as the auxiliary "is" "has" etc don't exist anymore. Q. progressive dùiñ yŕ luviñ mè "are you loving me?" Q. past prog dùiñ yùŕ luviñ mè "were you loving me?" wh- and th- words have noun form lists: pronouns: "who" "what" "that" "this" abbr nominative hù wut ðat ðis nom accusative hùm wutum ðam ðim acc genitive hùz wuts ðats ðisis gen dative tùm twut tuðat tuðis dat instrumental wihùm iþwut wiðat wiðis inst ablative ruhùm ruwut ruðat ruðis abl locative nihùm nwut niðat niðis loc future hùl wutẏl ðatẏl ðisẏl fut copula hùr wutŕ ðatŕ ðisŕ cop habetive hùv wutuv ðatuv ðisuv hab past copula hùuz wutuz ðatuz ðisuz past past habetive hùd wutud ðatud ðisud cond ___ specific rules for forming each noun case ___ nominative is unmarked. accusative is in -um, in -m when noun ends in a vowel, l, r or ŕ. if the noun ends in b or p, add m before it as -mb and -mp, unless the noun already ends in -mp or -mb. genitive in -z normally. in -s when the noun ends in p, t, c, k, þ. in -is when the noun ends in s, ś, z, ź, ç, j. dative in tu- normally. in t- when the noun begins with a vowel, s, r, w, y, or ŕ. if the noun begins in ś replace with ç. if the noun begins in ź replace with j. instrumental in wi- normally. in w- when the noun begins with a vowel, except ù, ẏ. in iþ- then the noun begins with w, y, ù or ẏ. ablative in ru- normally. in r- when the noun begin with a vowel. in fu- when the noun begin with ŕ or r. locative in ni- normally. in n- when the noun begins with a vowel, r, ŕ, w, or y. in i- when the noun begins with n, m, ñ. vocative in hà- normally. in ày- when the noun begins with a vowel. future in -ẏl normally. in -l when the noun ends in a vowel. copula in -ŕ normally. in -r when the noun ends in a vowel. in -ar when the noun ends in r or ŕ. habetive in -uv normally. in -v when the noun ends in a vowel. past copula in -uz normally. in -wuz when the noun ends in a vowel. past habetive in -ud normally. in -d when the noun ends in a vowel. ___ rules for the use of each noun case ___ the subject of a clause takes the nom. case in simple present and simple past, except when the "verb" would be bè or hav, in which case the verb is omitted and the relevant cop, hab, pacp, or cond cases are used instead. in other tenses, the tense and aspect is indicated by the combination of the case of the subject and the form of the verb. the direct object of a verb takes the acc. case, while indirect objects take dat. because of this marking, the topic of a clause can be moved to the front of the clause without disturbing meaning. gen. case is used to indicate possession, "dogz bòn" a dog's bone. inst. case is used for nouns used but not expended in the action, as well as to indicate other participant subjects of a verb. abl. case is used for nouns used and expended in the action, and also nouns from which something is taken in the action. in movement verbs, it is from where the subject leaves. loc. is used for the place where an action happens, but not the destination of a movement; that uses dat. instead. when movement occurs entirely within a place, that place may take locative. voc. is used for calling out some person, but also for the subject of an imperative. the hab. case is used for present perfect tenses, but also for a "reverse genitive" as for example yẏnìtid stàtuv umericu "united states of america" when the thing possessed is more important and must come first in a noun phrase.